While there is debate around the real causes of Climate Change, Green House Gas (GHG) emissions as a result of widespread use of fossil-based fuels by major economies around the world has been thought of playing a significant role in perpetuating the negative impacts of the phenomenon known as Climate Change. Regardless of whether GHG emissions is the sole culprit of the unusual, and often devastating changes in the climate patterns around the world, the global understanding has been sought over mitigating further dependence on fossil fuels by the developed countries. What further accentuates that desire, is not only the political and social instability of the regions which have traditionally supplied such fuels, but the fact that such fuel are finite in nature and due to be substantially exhausted in the not too distant future. It is interesting to note that the political and social turmoil associated with traditional sources of fossil fuels has given rise to the justification for many special interest groups in the developed world to call for "drilling closer to home". This view often ignores the fact that fossil fuel in the developed world often lies in "difficult to reach" and technologically challenging areas, which do not lend themselves to relatively risk-free exploration and exploitation. Recent environmental disasters, such as the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is a clear and undisputable indication of the dangers associated with "drilling closer to home". Consequently, to get out of our energy conundrum, it seems that our societies have no choice but to review and question the way our economies generate and utilize energy. Most studies of this nature reveal the wasteful and unsustainable processes and approaches which we have so far used in energy production and use. Conversion of one form of energy into another, transmission of energy from one place to another, distribution of energy through our urban and rural communities, and management of energy resources have all been imperfect, to say the least. Such wasteful approaches to energy use have been the hallmark of the last century, which has now come back to haunt us in terms of devastating consequences associated with Climate Change. It is in that light that Smart Grid has been inadvertently positioned as the silver bullet to address the Climate Change and Energy Independence issues. Smart Grid is expected to enable unprecedented degrees of conservation, efficiencies and utilization of alternative sources of energy, thus substantially reducing this century's dependence on fossil fuels. It is notable that regardless of which development category they belong to, the developed countries, as well as the developing countries, have put together ambitious plans for the development of next generation electric grid, also called Smart Grid, as the main engine for the development of their economies and the well-being of their population. However, the fact remains that Smart Grid is still a collection of concepts and ideas, whose full impact cannot be realized until a rich portfolio of innovative technologies, system architectures, integration solutions and social-economic components are available cost-effectively and in concert to address the energy supply and demand issues which individual countries across the world are grappling with. And as such, energy independence should be perceived by the world community as a global problem longing for global solutions. As will be demonstrated in the rest of this chapter, Information and Communication Technologies are poised to play a critical role in bringing about the full spectrum of functionalities which Smart Grid promises. After all, Smart Grid is all about pervasive monitoring and control, which could not be realized without a comprehensive blanket of communication technologies, encompassing all utility assets, and enabling the intelligence implanted in each node to contribute to the overall system capabilities and functionalities which Smart Grid is expected to provide., book chapter, Book published
Exciting yet challenging times lie ahead. The electrical power industry is undergoing rapid change. The rising cost of energy, the mass electrification of everyday life, and climate change are the major drivers that will determine the speed at which such transformations will occur. Regardless of how quickly various utilities embrace smart grid concepts, technologies, and systems, they all agree onthe inevitability of this massive transformation. It is a move that will not only affect their business processes but also their organization and technologies., Final article published
This chapter discusses anomalies which may not be attributed to expected operational deviations and/or mishaps associated with component failure and/or environmental conditions. The question here is: what are known cyber-security vulnerabilities which could be used to aid in the detection of patterns and signatures associated with various types of attacks and intrusions in the system which need to be detected and analyzed using Smart Grid's sensory data, such as Smart meter's and/or PMU's data, to help differentiate between "cyber-attacks in progress" as opposed to "expected system anomalies" due to operational failures of its components?, book chapter, published
Smart grid-related blogs, newsletters, and conferences have endured numerous debates and discussions around the issue of whether or not the smart grid integrated correctly. While most debates focus on approach, methodology, and the sequence of what to be done, there is insufficient discussion about actually meant by "smart grid integration." This article attempts to present a holistic view of integration and argues for the importance of developing system integration “maps” based on a utility's strategic smart grid road map., Article, Published
During the design of a new building or retrofitting of an existing one, it is important to reliably assess the indoor humidity levels of the building as it can potentially affect the building envelope durability, occupants? comfort and health risks associated with mould growth. Simplistic assumptions of indoor humidity profiles, which ignore the dynamic coupling of the indoor environment and building enclosure, may lead to inaccurate conclusions about the indoor environment and moisture performance of the building enclosure. In this paper, a whole-building hygrothermal model called HAMFitPlus, which takes into account the dynamic interactions between building envelope components, mechanical systems and indoor heat and moisture generation mechanisms, is used to assess the indoor humidity condition of an existing occupied house. HAMFitPlus is developed on SimuLink development platform and integrates COMSOL multiphysics with MatLab. The basic input parameters of the model are discussed in detail, and its simulation results are presented. In general, the HAMFitPlus simulation results are in good agreement with the measured data., Peer reviewed article, Published article and manuscript
This paper proposes a new approach for real-time and adaptive Volt/VAr optimization (VVO)/conservation voltage reduction (CVR) system using Intelligent Agents, communicating through IEC 61850 Goose Messaging Protocol. The paper also proposes new real-time adaptive VVO/CVR algorithms tailored for different service level targets and system topologies. The paper argues that each of these variations requires different Intelligent Agent Systems, data structures, and communication requirements. To test the applicability of the VVO/CVR optimization engine, a modified IEEE 34 Node system is used as case study., Article, Published
This paper aims to investigate the impact of different Electric Vehicle (EV) penetration on quasi real-time Volt–VAR Optimization (VVO) of smart distribution networks. Recent VVO solutions enable capturing data from Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) in quasi real-time to minimize distribution networks loss costs and perform Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) to save energy. The emergence of EVs throughout distribution feeder increases grid complexity and uncertainty levels that could affect AMI-based VVO objectives. Hence, this paper primarily introduces an AMI-based VVO engine, able to minimize grid loss and Volt–VAR control assets operating costs while maximizing CVR benefit. It then presents a real-time co-simulation platform comprised of the VVO engine, grid model in a real-time simulator and monitoring platform, communicating with each other through DNP.3 protocol, to test the precision and performance of AMI-based VVO in presence of different EV penetration levels. Accordingly, 33-node distribution feeder is studied through different EV penetration scenarios. The results show significant changes in AMI-based VVO performance especially in CVR sub-part of VVO according to EV model and type. Thus, this study could lead near future VVO solutions to gain higher levels of accuracy and efficiency considering smart microgrid components such as EV in their models., Article, Published. Received 27 November 2015, Revised 8 January 2016, Accepted 22 January 2016, Available online 16 February 2016.
This paper presents an implementation of an IEC 61850-based real-time co-simulation platform for verification of the performance of a volt-VAR optimization (VVO) engine for smart distribution networks. The proposed VVO engine is able to minimize grid loss, volt-VAR control asset operational costs, and conservation voltage reduction operational costs through its comprehensive objective functions, weighted by fuzzification using advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) data. The optimization engine receives the AMI data stream through measurement aggregators. Moreover, it sends control commands to volt-VAR control components modeled in real-time digital simulator (RTDS) through DNP.3 protocol. To check the performance and the precision of proposed VVO, a fault scenario is imposed upon the system. IEC 61850 GOOSE messages are generated and sent to change the status of specified breakers, while the VVO engine receives system reconfiguration commands via IEC61850 Manufacturing Message Specification (MMS) protocol. The results of the study on 33-node feeder showed adequate performance of proposed VVO in grid operating scenarios., Article, Published.
This paper aims to present a novel smart grid adaptive energy conservation and optimization engine for smart distribution networks. The optimization engine presented in this paper tries to minimize distribution network loss, improve voltage profile of the system and minimize the operating cost of reactive power injection by switchable shunt Capacitor Banks using Advanced Metering Infrastructure data. Moreover, it performs Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) and minimizes transformer loss. To accurately weight the optimization engine objective function sub-parts, Fuzzification technique is employed in this paper. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is applied as Volt-VAR Optimization (VVO) algorithm. Substantial benefits of the proposed energy conservation and optimization engine include but not limited to: adequate accuracy and speed, comprehensive objective function, capability of using AMI data as inputs, and ability to determine weighting factors according to the cost of each objective sub-part. To precisely test the applicability of proposed engine, 33-node distribution feeder is used as case study. The result analysis shows that the proposed approach could lead distribution grids to achieve higher levels of optimization and efficiency compared with conventional techniques., Article, Published. Received 27 November 2015, Revised 13 April 2016, Accepted 16 April 2016, Available online 26 April 2016.
This paper aims to investigate quasi real-time ZIP load models for new Smart Grid-based Volt-VAR Optimization (VVO) techniques. As recent VVO solutions are able to perform in quasi real-time using Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) data, more accurate load modeling could give distribution network operators and/or planners more precise Conservation Voltage Regulation (CVR) and energy saving values at each operating time stage. Furthermore, more accurate load modeling of each quasi real-time stage could improve VVO efficiency. As type, amount and operating time of each residential appliance varies throughout a day, this paper aims to discover ZIP load model of each quasi real-time stage separately through disaggregated data (i.e. decomposing residential load consumption into home appliance consumptions). This paper shows that the energy conservation achieved by CVR operation through presented quasi real-time ZIP load modeling could lead AMI-based VVO solutions to higher level of accuracy and data resolution compared with conventional techniques. Therefore, this paper primarily introduces a new quasi real-time AMI-based VVO engine. Then, it investigates ZIP load model of each quasi real-time stage through statistical data to conserve energy consumption. To check the authenticity and the applicability of presented model in a whole system, 33-node distribution feeder is employed., Published. Received 16 March 2015, Revised 14 May 2015, Accepted 3 June 2015, Available online 2 July 2015.
In recent years, Smart Grid technologies such as Advanced Metering, Pervasive Control, Automation and Distribution Management have created numerous control and optimization opportunities and challenges for smart distribution networks. Availability of Co-Gen loads and/or Electric Vehicles (EVs) enable these technologies to inject reactive power into the grid by changing their inverter’s operating mode without considerable impact on their active power operation. This feature has created considerable opportunity for distribution network planners to explore if EVs could be used in the distribution network as reliable VAR suppliers. It may be possible for network operators to employ some EVs as VAR suppliers for future distribution grids. This paper proposes an innovative Smart Grid-based Volt-VAR Optimization (VVO) engine, capable of minimizing system power loss cost as well as the operating cost of switched Capacitor Banks, while optimizing the system voltage using an improved Genetic Algorithm (GA) with two levels of mutation and two levels of crossover. The paper studies the impact of EVs with different charging and penetration levels on VVO in different operating scenarios. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates how a typical VVO engine could benefit from V2G’s reactive power support. In order to assess V2G impacts on VVO and test the applicability of the proposed VVO, revised IEEE-123 Node Test Feeder in presence of various load types is used as case study., Article, Published. Received 24 May 2014, Revised 23 July 2015, Accepted 29 July 2015, Available online 8 August 2015.