Master of Science in Ecological Restoration Applied Research Projects | BCIT Institutional Repository

Master of Science in Ecological Restoration Applied Research Projects

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Alaksen National Wildlife Area: Reservoir suitability for the introduction of the endangered Western Painted Turtle
Alaksen National Wildlife Area located in Delta, BC is home to freshwater species in the former tidal marsh. The current agricultural landscape has left a legacy of high concentrations of heavy metals, trace amounts of organochlorine pesticides, and excess nutrients within the sediments and water of the brackish Fuller and Ewen Reservoirs. Arsenic and phosphorous exceeded Canadian water quality guidelines, while arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, and phosphorus exceeded sediment quality guidelines. There were trace pesticides known to be endocrine disrupters detected in the water and sediment, and combined low level toxicity effects are a concern. A preliminary ecological risk assessment on the metals was completed and the results indicate that there is a possibility of adverse effects for benthic invertebrates, but negligible risk for endangered Western Painted Turtles. However, compounding all the ecosystem stressors along with rising sea levels leads ANWA not an ideal place to introduce this species., © Darian Weber, 2019. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright heron may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems – without written permission of the author., Western Painted turtles, ecotoxicology, risk assessment, agricultural reservoir, heavy metal, endocrine disruptors
Assessing the allelopathic effect of invasive phragmites australis on sida hermaphrodita and ammannia robusta; two species at risk in Southern Ontario
In Ontario, invasive Phragmites australis threatens to displace many species including the endangered species Sida hermaphrodita and Ammannia robusta. Germination and growth assays measured the effect of P. australis aqueous extracts from the leaves, rhizomes, and roots on S. hermaphrodita and A. robusta. Germination was inhibited by some of the treatments, but growth was not. The tissues inhibited germination differently for S. hermaphrodita (leaf> rhizome> root) compared to A. robusta (root> rhizome> leaf) indicating that the allelopathic effect was species-specific. However, the laboratory results show that allelopathic effects are weak. This result is consistent to the field study results showing an increase in S. hermaphrodita area and density over time. Results from this project inform management options by indicating which part of the plant needs to be targeted. In this case, all the tissues had some phytotoxic effects, indicating that biomass may need to be removed or long-term management implemented., Invasive Species, Species at Risk, Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, Allelopathy
Assessing the potential impact of English ivy (Hedera helix) on the arthropod community of Stanley Park
English ivy (Hedera helix) is a vine species that had been introduced to North America in colonial times. Extensive monocultures of English ivy and the attachment to other plants have been shown to impact native flora of North America. Its impact on native fauna has been overlooked. I sampled arthropods in six native plant plots and six English ivy plots in Stanley Park, British Columbia. A weekly collection of arthropods through pitfall traps was conducted from May to August 2019. There was no significant difference in arthropod diversity and total abundance of groups between native and ivy plots. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was used to show distances between beetle community compositions. There was a large overlap of beetle compositions despite three families found exclusively in native plots. Implications for managing and restoring English ivy of the park were discussed., NMDS, Hedera helix, Invasive species, Arthropods, Ecological restoration, Beetles as indicators, © Tianbi Wu, 2020. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright heron may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems – without written permission of the author.
Biological soil crusts for reclamation of mine tailings
Research was conducted examining biocrust development on reclaimed mine tailings and testing amendments to enhance biocrust establishment. Three reclaimed Canadian mine sites were samples for biocrusts: Endako mine (BC), Brenda mines (BC) and Gaspe mines (QC). Sampling showed Cladonia sp. lichen dominating the lichen samples. Microbial biomass was seen to be lower in older biocrusts, correlated to carbon content and, higher in microbial or moss dominated biocrusts. Carbon fraction was higher than mineral soils while nitrogen fraction was closer to organic soils. The biocrust samples also showed higher Al, P, K, S and Mg concentrations but lower Fe concentrations, than the sub-surface tailings sand. Experiments with amendments on the exposed tailings of Gibraltar mines (BC), showed an enhanced chlorophyll response to inoculation, fertilization and partial shading. Use of an organic media significantly enhanced moss productivity. This research project demonstrates the potential to use biocrusts for reclamation on mine tailings facilities., © Shantanu Dutt, 2020. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright heron may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems – without written permission of the author.
Blanket Creek Provincial Park weedy field restoration plan
A key management concern for provincial parks is the establishment of invasive species due to their impacts on native biodiversity. Within Blanket Creek Provincial Park there is a 0.24 ha heavily invaded field dominated by hawkweed species and spotted knapweed which developed after a series of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Restoration actions are required to renew the ecological process of natural succession and shift the vegetation community from its current state to one dominated by native species. The aim of this project was to determine the current site conditions which will inform a restoration plan for the site and act as baseline conditions for future monitoring. This site assessment focused on the characterization of the vegetation and soil conditions. Restoration recommendations focus on promoting the development of a deciduous forest characteristic of the Interior Cedar-Hemlock biogeoclimatic ecosystem classification zone. The restoration recommendations include invasive species management, decompaction, fertilization, mulching, and the planting of native trees and shrubs., restoration, alternative stable states, invasive species, forest succession
Breeding waterfowl use of restored wetlands in the Cariboo region of British Columbia
This study investigated effects of wetland size and emergent vegetation cover on breeding waterfowl and young at 12 restored wetlands in the Cariboo region of British Columbia. Repeated ground surveys were conducted throughout summer 2019 to determine total abundance, density and species richness of waterfowl. Surveyed wetlands varied in size and emergent cover. Large (16-19 ha) wetlands had greater breeding total abundance and lower breeding and brood densities than smaller wetlands. Total abundance of breeding waterfowl and young were highest when wetlands had less than 60% emergent cover. Previous studies suggest that high densities of waterfowl decrease young survival. Restorations created to benefit several species of breeding waterfowl may want to restore wetlands that are large (>16 ha) and have less than 30% emergent vegetation cover. These wetlands had higher total abundances and lower densities than other categories studied, however, certain species may depend on smaller wetlands which should be researched further., Cariboo region, wetland restoration, breeding waterfowl, emergent vegetation
Carbon sequestration and storage potential along the Trans-Canada Highway corridor in Chilliwack, BC
As of 2017, more than 4 billion people live in urban areas (Ritchie 2018). As people continue to move from rural to urban areas, the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in urban areas will continue to rise. However, this may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration by expanding urban forests (Baines et al. 2020). While the BC government has implemented reforestation projects on logged, provincial land, and has released a Community Toolkit for municipalities to increase their treed environments, there is still available land to be planted between the provincial and municipal land (Cullington et al. 2008). Trees are an important tool for CO2 sequestration and storage. The open landscapes of the Trans-Canada Highway right-of-ways presents an underutilized opportunity to increase the treed environment for carbon sequestration and storage along this open vehicle corridor. This project seeks to model the current carbon sequestration level and the carbon sequestration potential for different vegetation types along the Trans-Canada Highway and develop recommendations for revegetation plans to increase carbon sequestration along this heavily used vehicle corridor. The study site resides along a 20 km stretch of the Trans-Canada Highway in Chilliwack, British Columbia. This area was chosen as it is an agricultural community with very few treed areas. The area was split into the Chilliwack North Polygon (CNP) and the Chilliwack South Polygon (CSP) on ArcMap, on which a grid of 20 m by 20 m squares were laid, which is necessary for transferring the data collected in the field into i-Tree Eco v6.0 (n.d.). The program i-Tree Eco uses measurements, such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and ground cover class, taken in the field to estimate ecosystem services and structural characteristics of the Chilliwack area. Throughout the CNP and CSP areas, 12 were selected based on accessibility, safety, and site representation. The program i-Tree Canopy v7.0 (n.d.) was also used to bolster this information by estimating tree cover and tree benefits for the Chilliwack area through satellite imagery by randomly selecting 500 sampling points throughout the CNP and CSP areas. Grass surveys were conducted in 1 m by 1 m quadrats placed in an area representative of the selected 20 m by 20 m quadrat (i.e. a homogenous area that represents the majority of the vegetation in the plot). Grasses were identified on site to genus or species whenever possible, and their percent cover measured. Soil samples were also taken within the 1 m by 1 m quadrat within the first 15 cm. As these sample sites house anthroposols, sampling within the first 15 cm was selected to capture conditions in the root zone for plant growth. The soil samples taken were used to determine soil texture and soil pH for planting purposes. Finally, a review of highway management practices was done to identify areas where improvements can be made to increase carbon sequestration. Practical management suggestions are based on the results from the above-mentioned analyses. The program i-Tree Eco v6.0 (n.d) indicated that the CNP had the greatest carbon storage of 172,787.3 kg/ha, while the CSP had 15,270.8 kg/ha. The CNP is able to store 11,554.2 tonnes of carbon while the CSP was only able to store 546.1 tonnes of carbon. However, the CNP had an annual net carbon sequestration of - 57.2 tonnes/yr while the CSP has 2.5 tonnes/yr. Red alder (Alnus rubra) comprised 52.3% of tree species recorded and had the highest carbon storage of 6,322.7 tonnes, followed by bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) with 3,186.0 tonnes, black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) with 1416.3 tonnes, western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) with 1155.6 tonnes, and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) with 19.7 tonnes. The annual net carbon sequestration of red alders however was - 2.2 tonnes/yr, while bigleaf maple had the highest with 3.7 tonne/yr. The program i-Tree Canopy v7.0 (n.d.) indicated that overall, there was 125.37 tonnes of carbon sequestered annually in trees within the CNP and CSP, with 3,734.34 tonnes stored. The ground cover composition of the CNP had a greater composition of shrub (61.1%) and tree (16%) compared to the CSP, while the CSP had greater plantable space (65.4%). This data was used to characterize the study area and model the current carbon sequestration and storage. New management strategies were proposed and native vegetation suitable for the study area was identified.
A climate adaptation plan: Identifying thermal refugia for salmonids in the Tsolum River
Stream temperatures in the Pacific Northwest are increasing due to climate change, resulting in thermal stress for salmonids. Groundwater is a cooler source of water into streams, providing thermal refugia. The goal of this Applied Research Project was to identify groundwater input areas in the Tsolum River, using temperature loggers to trace the thermal signal of groundwater. A total of 28 water temperature loggers and 2 air temperature loggers were deployed within the watershed in the summer of 2019. Results showed that 12 sites may be influenced by groundwater input. Restoration/management actions such as riparian planting, gravel bar live staking, and restrictions on groundwater withdrawal are recommended to decrease stream temperatures. This study demonstrated that temperature loggers can be deployed within streams to identify areas of groundwater input. The identification of thermal refugia within the Tsolum River and other salmonid-bearing streams will help to protect salmonids from climate change impacts., climate adaptation, thermal refugia, Tsolum River, groundwater
Comparing soil nematode composition in bluebunch wheatgrass P. spicata root to the occurrence of invasive plants C. stoebe and L. dalmatica
The viability of native bunchgrass ecosystems throughout the PPxh BEC subzone and in Kenna Cartwright Park (KCP) in Kamloops B.C. are under threat by invasive plants. Once established, invasive plants are difficult to eradicate and can predominate the landscape. I collected soil samples from a relatively undisturbed bunchgrass reference site composed of native bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), and I collected soil samples from a bunchgrass site occupied by the invasive plants, spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) and dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica), to compare the soil nematode communities. My results reveal differences in the community-level biodiversity and abundance of soil nematodes between sites. The Maturity Index and the Plant Parasitic Index indicate that the native bunchgrass site had a “Structured” soil food web and that the site occupied by invasive plants had a “Basal” soil food web. My results indicate soil nematodes are useful as bioindicators of soil properties and these data provide useful criteria to help prioritize sites for ecological restoration., Nematology, Invasive plants, Pseudoroegneria spicata, Biological indicators, Ecological restoration
Eco-cultural restoration of wetlands at Tl’chés (Chatham Islands), British Columbia, Canada
My research project examined the restoration possibilities for two culturally important wetland ecosystems at Tl’chés (Chatham Islands, British Columbia, Canada). The first wetland is a sacred bathing pool and holds cultural significance, the second is a remnant silverweed and springbank clover (Potentilla anserine ssp. pacifica and Trifollium wormskjoldii) root garden. These wetlands are necessary ecosystems for the wildlife on Tl’chés as wetlands are rare, but also an integral part of Songhees’ cultural practices. My work was done at the invitation from elder Súlhlima (Joan Morris) who was one of the last resident of the islands and retains hereditary rights there, and Songhees Chief Ron Sam and band council. The goal of my project was to develop a restoration plan to restore the wetlands to pre-abandonment conditions, so cultural practices can continue, and to benefit the islands native plant and animal species. The project highlights the value of combining traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and traditional resource and environmental management (TREM) practices with ecological restoration., Eco-cultural restoration, wetland ecosystems, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), traditional resource and environmental management (TREM), estuarine root gardens, Songhees First Nation
Ecocultural restoration of a Coastal Root Garden on Tl’chés (Chatham Island), B.C.
Tl’chés is the Lekwungen name for the Chatham Islands — an archipelago located southeast of Victoria, British Columbia. Tl’chés is a central place in the traditional territory of the Lekwungen peoples, and today it is reserve land of the Songhees First Nation. This landscape was traditionally managed by prescribed burning and the cultivation of native plants. However, in the early 1950's, Lekwungen peoples left the archipelago, due to a lack of potable water and since then, the landscape has degraded drastically. The introduction of non-native plants has resulted in threats to the ecological, cultural resilience, and diversity of the landscape. My research focuses on developing a restoration plan for springbank clover in the coastal root garden. My restoration approach focuses on incorporating a Songhees-informed approach to restoration by integrating past practices and knowledge with the aim of answering: how to best restore the springbank clover population on Tl’chés?, Eco-cultural restoration, coastal root gardens, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), Songhees First Nation, cultural keystone place (CPK)
Ecological restoration of the Little Qualicum River Estuary: Analysis of short-term sediment deposition
Restoration of the Little Qualicum River Estuary has focused on re-establishing the Carex lyngbyei channel edge vegetation lost to grubbing by the overabundant resident Canada goose population. Short-term sediment deposition rates were measured using weekly deployments of sediment traps between June and July 2019 to investigate how restoration is facilitating sediment retention to rebuild the marsh platform. Deposition rates varied between 6.82-107.88 g/m2/week with traps deployed on the denuded mud flat areas collecting more sediments than inside the older exclosures. It had been expected that the exclosures with a greater density of sedges would retain more sediment. Spatial variation may be attributed to differences in sampling elevations. Restoring C. lyngbyei may not increase localized sediment deposition directly but does protect the continued supply of organic input from the seasonal senescence of C. lyngbyei. The organic input from aboveground biomass may have a larger contribution to marsh accretion than allochthonous sediments., sediment deposition, Carex lyngbyei, estuary, restoration, Canada goose

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