For better or for worse, many of the simple, unprocessed, and easily identifiable herbs of a bygone era can be found in retail commerce only rarely and with some degree of difficulty. Many modern botanical products intended for health-related purposes are, for the most part, quite complicated, often requiring additional testing for authentication of identity and for the presence of accidental or intentional adulterants, including contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, noxious microbes, and mycotoxins. As knowledge on the composition and properties of herbs has evolved, so too has the ability to evaluate those properties (e.g., marker compounds) using technology. The modern world also superimposes itself on commerce in the form of smelters, internal combustion engines, fecal coliforms, leaded gasoline, pesticides, prescription drugs, and other noxious substances that necessitate testing in addition to evaluating the inherent properties of the raw materials and finished products. No evaluation of herbal quality would be complete without some means of assuring that these and other unintentional contaminants are absent. In addition to an individual manufacturer’s desire to create and sell only the highest quality products, there are significant regulatory requirements surrounding the sale of botanical goods. Whether they are called natural health products (Canada), therapeutic goods (Australia), dietary supplements (United States), or phytomedicines (Europe), there are regulatory requirements to set specifications and to test for conformity with those specifications. Thus, the laboratory enters the scene., Article, Published.
Proceedings of 3rd International Building Physics Conference: 27 August 2006, Montreal, QC. A two-dimensional heat, air and moisture transport model called hygIRC is adapted to simulate a well-documented field exposure of an aerated concrete wall section. Difficulties are encountered due to a few missing information on boundary conditions of the exposure and hygrothermal properties of aerated con-crete. The paper presents how these inadequacies were overcome to simulate the hygrothermal behavior of the wall section. Appropriate assumptions were made due to justifiable reasons. Then the model provides temporal and spatial distributions of temperature and relative humidity for an extended period that are in ex-cellent agreement with the documented field data. The paper presents the justifications for the assumptions and the comparison of experimental and simulation results., Conference paper, Published. A version of this document is published in: 3rd International Building Physics Conference, Montreal, QC., August 27, 2006, pp. 321-328.
Proceedings of Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings XII International Conference, At Clearwater Beach, Florida, USA, December 2013.
Based on analysis of the drying and wetting potentials of a particular local climate, designers choose wall systems with or without an air gap between a sheathing membrane and a cladding layer. In addition to the capillary break that the air gap provides, thereby reducing the moisture transfer from wet cladding to the interior of the wall, the airspace will add the thermal resistance of the wall system and reduce the heat flow across the wall system. These moisture and thermal performances are straightforward to understand if the air in the air cavity is assumed to be a “still air.” In this paper, an experimental study is undertaken to under-stand the impact of airflow through an air cavity on the moisture and thermal performance of wall systems. To achieve this objective three test panels are instrumented and monitored in the field-experimental setting: one with no air gap, another one with an air gap but restricted airflow, and the third one with an air gap and open for airflow. The second and third wall systems have the same air gap width but different top flashing designs creating vented and ventilated wall systems. For the wall systems’ orientation and boundary conditions considered in this study, the wall with no air gap accumulates relatively high moisture content on the sheathing board, stud, and bottom plate and also has high moisture content changes in a year cycle when compared to the vented and ventilated wall systems. In general, the hygrothermal performances of vented and ventilated wall systems are comparable. During the winter period when relatively high moisture accumulation occurs, the upper section of the ventilated wall system shows slightly lower moisture content compared to that of the vented wall system. The temperature readings of the sheathing boards in the vented and ventilated wall systems are slightly warmer than that of the wall with no air gap for 85.5% and 73% of the time (based on hourly data of a year), respectively. For the balance of a period of time, the sheathing boards in the walls with an air cavity are slightly cooler than that of the wall with an air gap. Although the low temperature on the sheathing board, which is caused by solar radiation-induced airflow, is beneficial during a cooling season, the air gap and the associated airflow may reduce the heat gain that may be obtained from solar radiation during the heating season. The implications of air cavity and flashing design (airflow rate) on the heating and cooling load calculations of different orientations, wall configurations, and climate require further investigation., Conference paper, Published.
Proceeding of the 4th International Building Physics Conference: 15 June 2009, Istanbul, Turkey.
This paper provides highlights of the research work carried out at the National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction on assessing the hygrothermal performance of wall systems that included this innovative vapour retarder (Note: Vapour Barrier in Canadian terminology is equivalent to Vapor retarder in US terminology). The performance of walls was assessed when subjected to eastern coastal climate conditions of Halifax, one of the four Canadian climatic locations used in this study. A wood-framed stucco clad wall was the reference assembly. Results from different cases based on the variation of vapour control strategies and their effect on the hygrothermal performance of the wall systems are analysed. The results for the Halifax climate location indicate that the installation of a humidity controlled, innovative vapour retarder is a recommendable solution for the envelope design of residential buildings of these locations with moderate or high water vapour permeance of the interior paint. In this study, the advanced hygrothermal tool, hygIRC, was used to perform the hygrothermal performance analysis of the wall systems., Peer reviewed article, Published. A version of this document is published in: 4th International Building Physics Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, June 15-18, 2009, pp. 1-8.
Proceedings of 12th Canadian Conference of Building Science and Technology: 06 May 2009, Montreal, QC.
The hygrothermal performance of wood-frame wall with stucco cladding exposed to the coastal climate of Vancouver, BC, is studied. The primary objective of the study is to compare the moisture management performance of two vapour barriers: the relatively new SmartVapour Retarder (SVR) and commonly used Polyethylene sheet. For a reference purpose a wood-frame wall with no vapour barrier is considered as well. The performances of these three walls, which are exposed to the same indoor and outdoor climatic loads, are compared with respect to their dynamic responses to two simulation variables: interior moisture load (simulated water intrusion in the stud cavity) and paint on the interior gypsum board. The water intrusion is assumed to be through defect areas and the quantity is correlated with the amount of wind-driven rain that the wall is exposed to. The hygrothermal simulation results suggest that adoption of SVR as a vapour barrier yields better moisture management of the sheathing board (OSB) for any conditions considered in this paper including internal moisture load and interior paint. But, in coastal climate, it may have adverse effect on the moisture management of the interior gypsum board, in cases where water leaks into the cavity and the interior gypsum board is painted with low-vapour permeance paint., Peer reviewed article, Published. A version of this document is published in: 12th Canadian Conference of Building Science and Technology, Montreal, QC, May 6-8, 2009, pp. 1-12
14th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate (Indoor Air 2016), July 3-8, 2016, Ghent, Belgium. An indoor to attic air leakage and vice-versa significantly affect indoor air, thermal comfort and the hygrothermal performance in both living space and unconditioned space. In cold and marine climates an air leakage from living space to an attic brings a relatively high relative humidity to the attic space. This effect is primarily responsible for condensation in attic structural parts such as roof sheathings. In this paper, the hygrothermal performance of a ventilated attic in wet costal climates under different ceiling air leakage is studied. A benchmarked whole building Heat-Air-Moisture model named HAMFit is used to study hygrothermal performance of ventilated attics in marine climates. The attic is modelled as 2-dimensional geometry with coupled heat transfer, moisture transport and a turbulence Computational Fluid Dynamics through attic space and porous structural parts of the attic. A vent ratio of 1/300 and three types normalized leakage area (tight, normal and leaky) are used to analyse how the moisture transport behaves in ventilated space. A winter weather data of city of Vancouver, BC is used to represent a wet marine climate. Our findings show specific locations in the attic structure are more exposed to moisture related problems and the air circulation and temperature distribution due to ventilation under multiple ceiling air leakage scenarios are presented. Hygrothermal performance of ventilated attic in marine climate under different ceiling air tightness., Conference paper, Published.
Proceedings of Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings X International Conference: 02 December 2007, Clearwater, Florida. Testing was conducted to determine those construction material properties that affect the movement of heat, air, and moisture in building envelopes. The paper reports the density, thermal conductivity, equilibrium moisture content, water vapor permeability, water absorption coefficient, liquid diffusivity, and air permeability of twenty-three building materials commonly used in North American including: exterior claddings, exterior sheathing boards, membranes and insulations. The paper also discusses the experimental and analytical procedures used to determine these properties., Conference paper, Published. A version of this document is published in: Proceedings of Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings X, Clearwater, Florida, Dec. 2-7, 2007, pp. 1-16.
This paper aims to investigate the impact of different Electric Vehicle (EV) penetration on quasi real-time Volt–VAR Optimization (VVO) of smart distribution networks. Recent VVO solutions enable capturing data from Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) in quasi real-time to minimize distribution networks loss costs and perform Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) to save energy. The emergence of EVs throughout distribution feeder increases grid complexity and uncertainty levels that could affect AMI-based VVO objectives. Hence, this paper primarily introduces an AMI-based VVO engine, able to minimize grid loss and Volt–VAR control assets operating costs while maximizing CVR benefit. It then presents a real-time co-simulation platform comprised of the VVO engine, grid model in a real-time simulator and monitoring platform, communicating with each other through DNP.3 protocol, to test the precision and performance of AMI-based VVO in presence of different EV penetration levels. Accordingly, 33-node distribution feeder is studied through different EV penetration scenarios. The results show significant changes in AMI-based VVO performance especially in CVR sub-part of VVO according to EV model and type. Thus, this study could lead near future VVO solutions to gain higher levels of accuracy and efficiency considering smart microgrid components such as EV in their models., Article, Published. Received 27 November 2015, Revised 8 January 2016, Accepted 22 January 2016, Available online 16 February 2016.
This study compared dynamic-response feet to SACH feet with respect to factors influencing unilateral transtibial amputee balance and ability to adapt to variable terrains. This was done by measuring ground reaction forces for 30% perturbations of step length during level walking. These perturbations resulted in either a lengthening or a shortening of one step length by 30% of the normal step length. Subjects walked along a 12 metre walkway and across two flush mounter force platforms while forces were recorded for both feet. Three experimental conditions were completed with each foot type: normal step length, short step length (reduced by 30% from normal), and long step length (increased by 30% from normal)., Research report, Published.
Proceeding of IEEE ElectricalPower and Energy Conference (EPEC 2013), Aug. 2013, Halifax, Canada. Deployment of Smartgrid downstream features such as Smart Metering, pervasive control and Distributed Management Systems has brought great opportunities for distribution network planners to optimize the network in more precise methods. Moreover, the advent of Electric Vehicles (EVs) has brought more opportunities for grid optimization. Recent studies stipulate that EVs are able to inject reactive power into the grid by changing their inverter's operating mode. This paper primarily discusses a real-time adaptive Volt/VAr Optimization (VVO) engine, designed to minimize system apparent power losses, optimize voltage profiles, and reduce the operating costs of Switched Capacitor Banks of the grid. The paper goes on to study the impact of EVs on the distribution network VVO, taking into account different EV charging and penetration levels and checks the validity of the proposed algorithm by employing revised IEEE-37 Node Test Feeder in presence of various load types as a case study., Conference paper, Published.
In many mechanical systems, the tendency of sliding components to intermittently stick and slip leads to undesirable performance, vibration, and control behaviors. Computer simulations of mechanical systems with friction are difficult because of the strongly nonlinear behavior of the friction force near zero sliding velocity. In this paper, two improved friction models are proposed. One model is based on the force-balance method and the other model uses a spring-damper during sticking. The models are tested on hundreds of lumped mass-spring-damper systems with time-varying excitation and normal contact forces for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional stick-slip motions on a planar surface. Piece-wise continuous analytical solutions are compared with solutions using other published force-balance and spring-damper friction models. A method has been developed to set the size of the velocity window for Karnopp’s friction model. The extensive test results show that the new force-balance algorithm gives much lower sticking velocity errors compared to the original method and that the new spring-damper algorithm exhibits no spikes at the beginning of sticking. Weibull distributions of the sticking velocity errors enable maximum errors to be estimated a priori., Technical papers, Published. Received February 03, 2000; Revised August 17, 2000.
Proceedings from the 23rd Annual ACM Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education. Computer science and technology education should provide not only a strong theoretical foundation, but also problem solving, and communication and teamwork skills to prepare the students for careers. Including projects in curricula is a norm in many disciplines. However, projects are generally individual or based on small teams (two to five members). This paper presents my approach to teaching a capstone undergraduate computer technology course at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) in the Computer System Technology (CST) Program in which a large class of students (maximum 22), organized into small teams work together and apply Agile software development practices to design, implement, integrate and test a large project. This model provides students with unique learning opportunities and experiences, as well as improving their soft skills, engagement and motivation., Peer reviewed, Conference paper, Published.