General report about exploratory study of how post-secondary students with mathematics learning disabilities use and adapt their use of their personal electronic devices to support their academic studies., Not peer reviewed, Article
For better or for worse, many of the simple, unprocessed, and easily identifiable herbs of a bygone era can be found in retail commerce only rarely and with some degree of difficulty. Many modern botanical products intended for health-related purposes are, for the most part, quite complicated, often requiring additional testing for authentication of identity and for the presence of accidental or intentional adulterants, including contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, noxious microbes, and mycotoxins. As knowledge on the composition and properties of herbs has evolved, so too has the ability to evaluate those properties (e.g., marker compounds) using technology. The modern world also superimposes itself on commerce in the form of smelters, internal combustion engines, fecal coliforms, leaded gasoline, pesticides, prescription drugs, and other noxious substances that necessitate testing in addition to evaluating the inherent properties of the raw materials and finished products. No evaluation of herbal quality would be complete without some means of assuring that these and other unintentional contaminants are absent. In addition to an individual manufacturer’s desire to create and sell only the highest quality products, there are significant regulatory requirements surrounding the sale of botanical goods. Whether they are called natural health products (Canada), therapeutic goods (Australia), dietary supplements (United States), or phytomedicines (Europe), there are regulatory requirements to set specifications and to test for conformity with those specifications. Thus, the laboratory enters the scene., Article, Published.
This paper aims to investigate the impact of different Electric Vehicle (EV) penetration on quasi real-time Volt–VAR Optimization (VVO) of smart distribution networks. Recent VVO solutions enable capturing data from Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) in quasi real-time to minimize distribution networks loss costs and perform Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) to save energy. The emergence of EVs throughout distribution feeder increases grid complexity and uncertainty levels that could affect AMI-based VVO objectives. Hence, this paper primarily introduces an AMI-based VVO engine, able to minimize grid loss and Volt–VAR control assets operating costs while maximizing CVR benefit. It then presents a real-time co-simulation platform comprised of the VVO engine, grid model in a real-time simulator and monitoring platform, communicating with each other through DNP.3 protocol, to test the precision and performance of AMI-based VVO in presence of different EV penetration levels. Accordingly, 33-node distribution feeder is studied through different EV penetration scenarios. The results show significant changes in AMI-based VVO performance especially in CVR sub-part of VVO according to EV model and type. Thus, this study could lead near future VVO solutions to gain higher levels of accuracy and efficiency considering smart microgrid components such as EV in their models., Article, Published. Received 27 November 2015, Revised 8 January 2016, Accepted 22 January 2016, Available online 16 February 2016.
In spite of the progress in developing methods and tools to support sustainable building design, there is still a lack of a formal approach to bridge the "no man’s land” gap between the traditional building engineering disciplines, and between these and the architecture, to achieve the level of building integration required for sustainability. This paper presents an integration framework that aims at facilitating the inclusion of life-cycle considerations in the design process from the outset, so that materials and systems are selected not only from environmentally friendly resources, but most importantly, to match service life performance expectations. The framework describes an iterative methodology to evaluate these expectations in practice, which is based on an understanding and modeling of the dynamics of the built environment to which materials, components, and systems are exposed. Quantitative methods and test protocols can be incorporated into the framework for assessing function-performance aspects of alternative solutions. Due to its complexity stemming from its inherent exposure to variable environmental loads and its multi-functionality, the framework focuses on addressing the life cycle of the building enclosure system. It is expected that the organization of the underlying principles of building life-cycle performance described in this paper will become a knowledge core that will facilitate a more integrated treatment of buildings in research, education, and practice., Peer reviewed, Peer reviewed article, Received 29 October 2010 ; Revised 13 January 2011 ; Accepted 18 January 2011 ; Available online 27 January 2011., Life-cycle, Service life, Building science, Building enclosure, Building integration
We present the results of a study that explored the emotions experienced by students during interaction with an educational game for math (Heroes of Math Island). Starting from emotion frameworks in affective computing and education, we considered a larger set of emotions than in related research. For emotion labeling, we started from a standard methodology that relies on trained judges to report emotions over 20-s intervals, however, we asked judges to report all observed emotions in each interval, as opposed to only choosing one, as is standard practice. This variation allows us to discuss the appropriateness of this interval for emotion labeling. We present a detailed analysis of interrater reliability, both aggregated and over individual students, that considers not only labeling agreement among judges in terms of emotion type, but also with respect to the number of emotions detected. We also provide an analysis based on in-depth one-to-one interviews with judges, to gain insights on the challenges they encountered in labeling emotions., Peer reviewed, Peer reviewed article, First Online: 07 January 2016., Learning, Educational games, Emotion labeling, Interrater agreement, Interviewing judges, Affective states
We present the results of a study that explored the emotions experienced by students during interaction with an educational game for math (Heroes of Math Island). Starting from emotion frameworks in affective computing and education, we considered a larger set of emotions than in related research. For emotion labeling, we started from a standard methodology that relies on trained judges to report emotions over 20-s intervals, however, we asked judges to report all observed emotions in each interval, as opposed to only choosing one, as is standard practice. This variation allows us to discuss the appropriateness of this interval for emotion labeling. We present a detailed analysis of interrater reliability, both aggregated and over individual students, that considers not only labeling agreement among judges in terms of emotion type, but also with respect to the number of emotions detected. We also provide an analysis based on in-depth one-to-one interviews with judges, to gain insights on the challenges they encountered in labeling emotions., Not peer reviewed, Article
This paper investigates a novel approach for maintenance scheduling of volt-VAR control components (VVCCs) of distribution networks with the aid of new generation of volt-VAR optimization (VVO) solutions called quasi-real-time VVO. The new quasi-real-time VVO technique optimizes distribution network using advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) data of each quasi-real-time stage. As this VVO performs automatically and online, it is necessary for VVCCs to undergo maintenance without disturbing VVO performance. Moreover, the lost benefits that could be gained by online VVO have to be minimized. Hence, this paper proposes an AMI-based VVO consisting of a VVO engine and a maintenance scheduling engine (MSE) that operate in tandem to optimize distribution network and find the optimal maintenance scheduling of different VVCCs. To test the accuracy and the applicability of the proposed solution, a 33-node distribution feeder is employed. Furthermore, five different maintenance scenarios are investigated to check the proposed VVO performance. The results prove that the integration of VVO with MSE could be a reliable approach that can solve maintenance scheduling of VVCCs without interrupting and/or resetting VVO., Article, Published
Vegetative roofs have the potential to provide excellent external/internal sound isolation due to their high mass, low stiffness and their damping effect, and to provide a high level of sound absorption due to the low impedance of the vegetative substrate layer. The acoustical characteristics of vegetative roofs provide ecological contributions to the urban environment through a reduction of noise pollution from aircraft, elevated transit systems, and industrial noise. Vegetative roofs can reduce sound transmission into the interior of buildings, contributing to improved room acoustics through a reduction in noise and hence a reduction in distraction and stress (Connelly & Hodgson 2008). Through surface absorption, vegetative roofs will affect the propagation and build-up of positive and negative sounds and reduce reverberation in enclosed rooftop areas, altering the quality of the soundscape and the habitability of rooftops.
Vegetative roofs can be comprised of various material layers: root barrier, water reservoir/drainage layer, filter fabric, substrates and plants. The layer thought to have the most significant effect on the vegetative roof’s acoustical characteristics is the layer of the vegetation and substrate. The vegetative substrate is complex to characterize; it varies in terms of the depth of substrate, the substrate constituents and physical properties, the plant’s aerial biomass and root structure, as well as the dynamic in-situ microclimatic and conditions which vary over season and time., Article, Published.
In recent years, Smart Grid technologies such as Advanced Metering, Pervasive Control, Automation and Distribution Management have created numerous control and optimization opportunities and challenges for smart distribution networks. Availability of Co-Gen loads and/or Electric Vehicles (EVs) enable these technologies to inject reactive power into the grid by changing their inverter’s operating mode without considerable impact on their active power operation. This feature has created considerable opportunity for distribution network planners to explore if EVs could be used in the distribution network as reliable VAR suppliers. It may be possible for network operators to employ some EVs as VAR suppliers for future distribution grids. This paper proposes an innovative Smart Grid-based Volt-VAR Optimization (VVO) engine, capable of minimizing system power loss cost as well as the operating cost of switched Capacitor Banks, while optimizing the system voltage using an improved Genetic Algorithm (GA) with two levels of mutation and two levels of crossover. The paper studies the impact of EVs with different charging and penetration levels on VVO in different operating scenarios. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates how a typical VVO engine could benefit from V2G’s reactive power support. In order to assess V2G impacts on VVO and test the applicability of the proposed VVO, revised IEEE-123 Node Test Feeder in presence of various load types is used as case study., Article, Published. Received 24 May 2014, Revised 23 July 2015, Accepted 29 July 2015, Available online 8 August 2015.
Vapour barriers were originally intended to keep building assemblies from getting wet, but they can sometimes end up preventing assemblies from drying out. An innovative new product to manage moisture accumulation in the building envelope, however, may be able to address both issues: while the product acts as a vapour barrier under most conditions, it also allows excess moisture to escape. The Canadian Construction Materials Centre (CCMC) set out to determine whether this product can serve as a vapour barrier and an air barrier system and whether it conformed to the intent of applicable building code requirements. In collaboration with NRC-IRC researchers, CCMC developed a testing protocol for its evaluation, which was based on laboratory testing requirements for vapour diffusion, air leakage control and durability., Article, Published.
This paper aims to investigate quasi real-time ZIP load models for new Smart Grid-based Volt-VAR Optimization (VVO) techniques. As recent VVO solutions are able to perform in quasi real-time using Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) data, more accurate load modeling could give distribution network operators and/or planners more precise Conservation Voltage Regulation (CVR) and energy saving values at each operating time stage. Furthermore, more accurate load modeling of each quasi real-time stage could improve VVO efficiency. As type, amount and operating time of each residential appliance varies throughout a day, this paper aims to discover ZIP load model of each quasi real-time stage separately through disaggregated data (i.e. decomposing residential load consumption into home appliance consumptions). This paper shows that the energy conservation achieved by CVR operation through presented quasi real-time ZIP load modeling could lead AMI-based VVO solutions to higher level of accuracy and data resolution compared with conventional techniques. Therefore, this paper primarily introduces a new quasi real-time AMI-based VVO engine. Then, it investigates ZIP load model of each quasi real-time stage through statistical data to conserve energy consumption. To check the authenticity and the applicability of presented model in a whole system, 33-node distribution feeder is employed., Published. Received 16 March 2015, Revised 14 May 2015, Accepted 3 June 2015, Available online 2 July 2015.
This paper proposes a new approach for real-time and adaptive Volt/VAr optimization (VVO)/conservation voltage reduction (CVR) system using Intelligent Agents, communicating through IEC 61850 Goose Messaging Protocol. The paper also proposes new real-time adaptive VVO/CVR algorithms tailored for different service level targets and system topologies. The paper argues that each of these variations requires different Intelligent Agent Systems, data structures, and communication requirements. To test the applicability of the VVO/CVR optimization engine, a modified IEEE 34 Node system is used as case study., Article, Published