Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Research in Building Physics: 14 September 2003, Leuven, Belgium. The design of exterior walls in a building envelope for optimum moisture management is a challenging task. Many conventional methods or local practice guidelines are available for this purpose, based primarily on regional traditions and with limited performance assessment records. In recent years, new wall systems and unconventional materials have been introduced in every part of North America for reasons such as aesthetic appeal, cost-effectiveness etc. However, neither the long-term moisture management performance of these new wall systems nor the uses of unconventional materials have been assessed rigorously. The primary reason for this lack of such assessment is the absence of a design-oriented technical routine toperform the task. Recent studies at the Institute for Research in Construction (IRC) / National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, show that such an assessment is possible with the use of an advanced hygrothermal modelling tool, such as hygIRC, developed in-house at IRC. This paper presents results from hygrothermal modelling and discussion on walls with the four different cladding systems: stucco, exterior insulated finish systems (EIFS), masonry and siding. These walls were virtually exposed to several North American climates. Their hygrothermal responses were assessed with a novel indicator, called the RHT index, which is derived from relative humidity and temperature. The results and discussion presented in this paper clearly show the need and usefulness of an integrated design methodology for the moisture management of exterior wall systems that can help to optimise various design considerations., Conference paper, Published. A version of this document is published in: Research in Building Physics, Leuven, Belgium, Sept. 14-18, 2003, pp. 417-426.
The moisture design of exterior walls in a building envelope is an important task that needs to be carried out systematically to generate a sustainable and healthy built environment. Many conventional methods or practice guidelines are available for this purpose, based primarily on local traditions and with limited performance assessment records. In recent years, with the rapid development of global free trade and economy, new wall systems and unconventional materials have been introduced in every part of the world for reasons such as aesthetic appeal, cost effectiveness and so on. However, neither the long-term moisture management performance of these new wall systems nor the uses of unconventional materials have been assessed in a systematic way. The primary reason for this lack of assessment is the absence of a design-oriented methodology to perform the task. This paper presents selected results from a recently completed research project that demonstrate that it is indeed possible to assess the moisture management performance of exterior walls in a systematic way, using a hygrothermal modeling tool together with key inputs from a limited number of laboratory and field investigations. In this project the hygrothermal responses of exterior walls and their components were assessed with a novel moisture response indicator, called the RHT index, which is derived from relative humidity and temperature data over a time period. The results and discussion presented in this paper clearly show the need and usefulness of the application of hygrothermal simulation tool for the optimum moisture design of exterior wall systems in various geographic locations, when sufficient information is available from laboratory and field experiments., Technical papers, Published. Received February 23, 2005; Accepted May 05, 2006; Published online December 01, 2006.
Proceedings of CIB World Building Congress 2004: 02 May 2004, Toronto, Ontario. As the stock of buildings in Canada ages, it is expected that there will be an increase in building envelope rehabilitation work. Such activities represent an ideal opportunity to add insulation and reduce air leakage to improve energy efficiency and building envelope durability. However, there is very little information available on how to assess the moisture and thermal (i.e. energy) performance of retrofitted building envelope assemblies and select the optimum retrofit options that will maximize the energy efficiency without compromising the long-term moisture performance of the retrofitted building envelopes. This paper depicts selected results from a study that has used a two-dimensional hygrothermal simulation tool, hygIRC-2D, to assess thermal and moisture performance of retrofitted masonry walls used in high-rise construction. The performance analyses of three basic (i.e. base case) masonry wall systems (Brick Veneer - Steel Stud, Brick Veneer - Concrete Masonry, and Precast Concrete Panels - Steel Stud) with four retrofit options, located in the National Capital Region (Ottawa-Gatineau) of Canada, are presented in this paper. The results from the simulations indicate that hygrothermal simulation tools can be used to evaluate the thermal and moisture performance of various wall systems and associated retrofit options. Simulations results also indicate that with specific retrofit options the energy performance of the wall system can be improved significantly without compromising the moisture response of the wall by adding insulation and reducing air-leakage in the wall assembly. However, heat or energy loss through the wall system is directly proportional to the air-leakage characteristics of the wall system. In general, based on the results presented in this paper, it can be concluded that use of a hygrothermal simulation tool can help to identify potentially problematic retrofit strategies while more promising measures can be advanced for additional assessment through full-scale laboratory testing or field demonstration., Conference paper, Published. A version of this document is published in: CIB World Building Congress 2004, Toronto, Ontario, May 2-7, 2004, pp. 1-10.
Proceedings of the International Workshop on Defeasible and Ampliative Reasoning (DARe-15) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, July 27, 2015. Public announcements cause each agent in a group to modify their beliefs to incorporate some new piece of information, while simultaneously being aware that all other agents are doing the same. Given some fixed goal formula, it is natural to ask if there exists an announcement that will make the formula true in a multi-agent context. This problem is known to be undecidable in a general modal setting, where the presence of nested beliefs can lead to complex dynamics. In this paper, we consider not necessarily truthful public announcements in the setting of propositional belief revision. We are given a goal formula for each agent, and we are interested in finding a single announcement that will make each agent believe the corresponding goal following AGM-style belief revision. If the goals are inconsistent, then this can be seen as a form of ampliative reasoning. We prove that determining if there is an arbitrary public announcement in this setting is not only decidable, but that it is simpler than the corresponding problem in the most simplified modal logics. Moreover, we argue that propositional announcements and beliefs are sufficient for modelling many practical problems, including simple robot controllers., Conference paper, Published.
Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Building Physics in the Nordic Countries: 13 June 2005, Reykjavik, Iceland. As the stock of buildings in our society ages, it is expected that there will be an increase in building envelope rehabilitation work. Such activities represent an ideal opportunity to modify the existing wall system to improve building envelope durability and energy efficiency. This could be done by addition of insulation and sealing air leakage paths. However, there is very little information available on how to assess the moisture and energy (i.e. thermal) performance of retrofitted building envelope assemblies and select the optimum retrofit options that will maximize the long-term moisture performance and the energy efficiency of the retrofitted building envelopes together. This paper presents the findings from a study that has used a two-dimensional hygrothermal simulation tool, hygIRC-2D, to assess moisture and energy performance of retrofitted masonry walls used in high-rise construction for both residential and commercial types of buildings at various Canadian locations. The results from the simulations indicate that, if heat, air and moisture transport properties of the materials and the airflow characteristics of the systems can be defined properly a hygrothermal simulation tool can be used to evaluate the moisture and thermal (i.e. energy) performance of various wall systems and associated retrofit options., Published. A version of this document is published in: 7th Symposium on Building Physics in the Nordic Countries, Reykjavik, Iceland, June 13-15, 2005, pp. 1139-1146.
The application of polyurethane spray foam (SPF) insulation in buildings provides a durable and efficient thermal barrier. The industry is also promoting the SPF as an effective air barrier system in addition to its thermal insulation characteristics. In an effort to address these issues, a consortium of SPF manufacturers and contractors, jointly with the National Research Council of Canada’s Institute for Research in Construction conducted an extensive research project to assess the thermal and air leakage characteristics of SPF walls as well as conventional wall assemblies. The objective is to develop analytical and experimental procedures to determine a wall energy rating (WER) that captures both the thermal and airleakage performance of a wall assembly. The experimental part included two streams of testing: (1) To determine the wall air leakage rate at different conditions and (2) their thermal resistance, R-value, at different temperature differences. An analytical procedure was also developed to calculate WER by combining the heat loss due to thermal transmission and that due to air leakage with the aim of arriving at WER. Six conventional full-scale wood frame wall assemblies were built, two with glass fiber batts and of four with medium density SPF. Some walls were constructed without penetrations and others were built with penetrations. The testing regime included: (i) Initial testing of air leakage and thermal resistance; (ii) conditioning in the dynamic wall test facility according to an established routine; and (iii) retesting for air leakage and thermal resistance. This paper presents the results of six walls included in this project. The focus of this paper will be on presenting a brief summary of the project objective, testing protocol, and the theoretical approach to determine the WER number for the six walls., Peer reviewed article, Published. Received 23 July 2008; accepted 30 June 2009; published online 29 October 2009.
This study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of an integrated natural ventilation design for a NetZero energy house in maintaining occupants comfortable solely by passive means. The house was instrumented and monitored during the warmest months of the year. A dynamic thermal model and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model were developed to supplement the measurements and help to understand the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the design. A methodology was developed to validate the models with data and cross-validate them. Adaptive thermal comfort is used as the metric to determine if comfort has been achieved. The study concludes that the house as a whole meets the comfort target. Two technologies were compared through simulations to evaluate their effect on enhancing wind-induced natural ventilation. The technologies did not improve cooling performance in a significant manner. Further work is needed to improve the models through technologies testing in the laboratory and model the uncertainty of the boundary forces to increase confidence in the results., Peer reviewed, Peer reviewed article, Published online: 06 Sep 2016., Adaptive thermal comfort, Natural ventilation, Active house, NetZero energy house
The thermal environment was studied in two operating rooms at the Montreal General Hospital. Thermal comfort of the staff was assessed based on measurements of the environment during surgical operations and on questionnaires given to the staff. Infrared pictures of representative surfaces and people were also taken and, when possible, skin and core temperatures of the patient were also measured. The thermal resistance of clothing and the activity levels for all the people were estimated from published tables and previous research studies. Three thermal zones were studied: zone 1, bounded by the patient, the surgical staff, and the surgical lights; zone 2, the adjacent area; and zone 3, the farthest one. It was found that under the present environmental and personal conditions it is not possible to provide all groups of people with an acceptable thermal environment. In general, surgeons tend to feel from slightly warm to hot (they sweat very often), anesthesia staff and nurses from slightly cool to cold, and the patient from slightly cool to very cold (patients sometimes woke up shivering). In addition to questionnaires, thermal comfort was predicted based on Fanger ' PMV model, which assumes a uniform thermal environment. Based on Fanger's model, the air temperature that could have ensured satisfactory thermal comfort for the surgeon, under the particular conditions studied, was about 66 deg F (19 deg C). However, at that temperature, to remain in good thermal comfort, nurses and anesthetists must be clothed with at least 0.9 clo and the patient covered with at least 1.6 clo. In practice, however, the radiant temperature asymmetry from the surgical lights in zone 1, which ranges between 11 deg F (6 deg C) and 137 (7 deg C) over the operating table and between 18 deg F (1O deg C) and 22F (12 deg C) over the floor (at a level of 1.1 m), causes surgeons' dissatisfaction with the environment at any air temperature. Possible solutions to minimize radiation and its effects on the surgeons are discussed, which would permit ambient temperatures more favorable for the patient and all the staff., Peer reviewed, Conference proceeding, Published: 2001.
The international residential code (IRC) and most building codes in North America provide attic ventilation codes which allow a certain minimum venting area with an unblocked space by the ceiling insulation. Most of these codes have similar minimum venting ratio, minimum space gap between the roof sheathing and ceiling insulation and vent area location for similar climatic conditions. In this paper, the effects of varying the gap between roof sheathing and ceiling insulation (baffle size) and the locations of vent area under both summer and winter conditions are investigated. Three different baffle sizes and three different locations of the attic vent are used to study their effect on the air distribution and temperature profile inside the attic space. A CFD model is developed and validated using existing experimental measurements. Results show that increasing baffle size hugely affects the air distribution when the air flow is majorly driven by wind. The upper side roof vents have been located at three different locations and our findings show when the upper vent is placed the furthest from the ridge the Air Change per Hour (ACH) value in the attic increases but the air circulation is minimal in the top parts of the attic space and structural elements., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Received 29 November 2014, Revised 26 January 2015, Accepted 28 January 2015, Available online 7 February 2015.
Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-07) in Vancouver, BC, July 22–26, 2007. Cryptographic protocols are structured sequences of messages that are used for exchanging information in a hostile environment. Many protocols have epistemic goals: a successful run of the protocol is intended to cause a participant to hold certain beliefs. As such, epistemic logics have been employed for the verification of cryptographic protocols. Although this approach to verification is explicitly concerned with changing beliefs, formal belief change operators have not been incorporated in previous work. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to protocol verification by combining a monotonic logic with a non-monotonic belief change operator. In this context, a protocol participant is able to retract beliefs in response to new information and a protocol participant is able to postulate the most plausible event explaining new information. We illustrate that this kind of reasoning is particularly important when protocol participants have incorrect beliefs., Conference paper, Published.
Proceedings of the 21st Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-06). Boston, MA, July 16–20, 2006. We consider the iterated belief change that occurs following an alternating sequence of actions and observations. At each instant, an agent has some beliefs about the action that occurs as well as beliefs about the resulting state of the world. We represent such problems by a sequence of ranking functions, so an agent assigns a quantitative plausibility value to every action and every state at each point in time. The resulting formalism is able to represent fallible knowledge, erroneous perception, exogenous actions, and failed actions. We illustrate that our framework is a generalization of several existing approaches to belief change, and it appropriately captures the non-elementary interaction between belief update and belief revision., Conference paper, Published.
We consider the iterated belief change that occurs following an alternating sequence of actions and observations. At each instant, an agent has beliefs about the actions that have occurred as well as beliefs about the resulting state of the world. We represent such problems by a sequence of ranking functions, so an agent assigns a quantitative plausibility value to every action and every state at each point in time. The resulting formalism is able to represent fallible belief, erroneous perception, exogenous actions, and failed actions. We illustrate that our framework is a generalization of several existing approaches to belief change, and it appropriately captures the non-elementary interaction between belief update and belief revision., Peer-reviewed article, Published.