Master of Science in Ecological Restoration Applied Research Projects | BCIT Institutional Repository

Master of Science in Ecological Restoration Applied Research Projects

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Restoring a culturally eutrophic shallow lake: Case study on Quamichan Lake in North Cowichan, British Columbia
Quamichan Lake is a culturally eutrophic shallow lake located in North Cowichan on Vancouver Island in British Columbia. My research project examined the current trophic status and water quality of Quamichan Lake and investigated a number of watershed and in-lake restoration methods to return the lake back to mesotrophic (nutrient rich) conditions. Based on the data collected, Quamichan Lake is currently in a hypertrophic state caused by excess phosphorus inputs that leads to Cyanophyte phytoplankton species (cyanobacteria) to dominate during the summer. Eutrophication is both an environmental and human health issue as cyanobacteria algal blooms can disrupt the lake ecology and are toxic to most mammals. The goal of my research was to provide the Municipality of North Cowichan and Vancouver Island Health Authority with a comprehensive restoration plan to contribute to the restoration of Quamichan Lake and other lakes in southern Vancouver Island that are experiencing cultural eutrophication., © Kathleen E Moore, 2019. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright heron may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems – without written permission of the author., Eutrophication, Limnology, Watershed Management, Cyanobacteria, Restoration
Restoring hydrological connectivity in the Guichon Creek watershed through wetland creation
Urbanization of areas alters the natural hydrology of the land through the creation of impervious surfaces, removal of vegetation, and construction of storm sewer systems. These alterations impact physical processes and the biological communities of our waterways through the introduction of pollutants, creation of uncharacteristic hydrological regimes, and habitat loss and fragmentation. Integration of natural areas in our built environments will mitigate some of these effects and reduce the degradation of streams in urbanized watersheds. Guichon Creek flows through an urbanized environment, which includes the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) Burnaby campus. A tributary flows into Guichon Creek at the south end of campus and the majority of its flow is from a stormwater sewer which receives runoff from the residential area east of campus. The tributary is approximately 150 metres and runs between a community garden and a small gravel parking lot before entering Guichon Creek. This project proposes restoration of a 2,000 m2 parcel of land between Guichon Creek and the tributary. Restoration activities involve removal of an existing parking lot, management of invasive hybrid Japanese knotweed (Fallopia x bohemica) and Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus), creation of an off channel wetland, and addition of natural in-stream structures to the tributary. Wetlands provide important hydrological and ecological functions that will contribute to the restoration efforts on Guichon Creek. This wetland will improve hydrological functions of the Guichon Creek floodplain through increased groundwater infiltration, creation of a storage area, and pollutant filtration. Improving these functions is also an important component of making stream ecosystems more resilient to climate change. The wetland will also provide ecological benefits such as improved water quality and creation of amphibian habitat. This project focuses on the creation of habitat for northern red-legged frog (Rana aurora) and the Pacific chorus frog (Psuedacris regilla). Another important component of restoration in an urban environment is creating a connection between people and the environment. Restoration of this space provides opportunities for public involvement and environmental education and awareness. This creates a forum to discuss the effects of urbanization on streams and show people where the runoff from their neighbourhood ends up. Forming that connection between people and their environment is an important step to creating interest and involvement in environmental issues.
Simplified structure or fewer arthropods to eat?
In agricultural landscapes, hedgerows provide critical habitat for songbirds. Himalayan Blackberry (Rubus armeniacus; HBB) is a widespread invasive species in the Pacific Northwest that has been linked to lower breeding songbird diversity. My study explored two possible explanatory mechanisms: educed structural complexity and lower arthropod abundance as a food source. I conducted avian point counts in 51 hedgerow segments at two locations in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. In these segments, I quantified vegetation structure using a Foliage Height Diversity (FHD) metric derived from LiDAR data. I sampled arthropod abundance on the foliage of woody understory vegetation. I used multiple regression to identify best fit generalized linear models. Songbird diversity decreased with HBB % cover and increased with FHD. However, arthropod abundance was unrelated to bird metrics, and similar between HBB and other native shrubs. This suggests that hedgerows should be managed to control HBB and maximize vegetation structure., songbird diversity, agricultural landscapes, Himalayan Blackberry, hedgerows, arthropods, LiDAR
Sturgeon Bank marsh recession: A preliminary investigation into the use of large woody debris as a tool for restoring a degraded foreshore marsh
Large woody debris removal has been ongoing in the Fraser River Delta since the late 1800’s. I investigated how offshore winds and the absence of large wood may have contributed to the recession of the Sturgeon Bank Marsh. I suggest large wood increases marshland resilience and promotes new marsh establishment by attenuating wave energy, decreasing sediment mobilization, deterring herbivory, and promoting the establishment of vegetated islands from which the marsh can expand. I analyzed historical wind data for patterns in offshore wind duration and installed several pieces of large wood onto the tidal flats of the Sturgeon Bank. I developed a technique for anchoring wood in the intertidal and give my recommendations for further development. Finally, I conclude the recession of the Sturgeon Bank Marsh was the result of multiple interacting stressors and coin the term keystone structural element to describe the function of large wood within a foreshore marsh., large woody debris, keystone structural element, marsh recession, ecological restoration, wave sheltering, coastal marsh
Using 10-years of population monitoring data to assess breeding productivity of the Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa)
Relationships between changing environmental variables and amphibian populations have been understudied. Yet, alterations to temperature and precipitation have been suggested as contributors to the decline of some pond-breeding species, such as the Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa). R. pretiosa has been classified as the most endangered amphibian in Canada, yet the cause for its decline is unknown. Therefore, this paper examined associations between temperature and precipitation, and R. pretiosa population trends, using a 10-year data set from two breeding populations in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. Timing of oviposition was positively related to higher temperature and increased precipitation within both populations (p<0.05). No statistical relationship was determined between egg mass productivity and temperature or precipitation; however, this paper proposes that further research, consistent protocols and longer study periods, is necessary in order to determine environmental variables as possible predictors of population success. This paper recommends the evaluation of breeding success through survivorship studies, as such methods provide insight into productivity as the primary determinant for population recruitment. Further, ecological restoration efforts can be implemented to help ameliorate negative consequences climate change poses on reproductive success., amphibian, climate change, conservation, ecological restoration, endangered, population dynamics, population monitoring, survivorship

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