Master of Science in Ecological Restoration Applied Research Projects | BCIT Institutional Repository

Master of Science in Ecological Restoration Applied Research Projects

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Restoring hydro-impacted wetlands for secretive marsh birds
Secretive marsh birds can be difficult to detect and are dependent on wetlands, leaving them vulnerable to wetland loss or alteration. This study examines the influence of management-altered hydrological regimes on five secretive marsh bird species in the West Kootenay and Columbia Wetlands in British Columbia, Canada. Focal species occupied wetlands with less frequently altered hydrological regimes more often and in greater numbers. Occupancy models suggested that woody vegetation, tall vegetation, and open water are important drivers of occupancy for these species. Wetlands most frequently experiencing heavily altered hydrological regimes had more open water and less tall vegetation, both of which were negatively associated with wetland occupancy. Water management operations may be promoting altered vegetation communities within these wetlands, in turn promoting lower occupancy of secretive marsh bird species. Restoration recommendations include: prioritizing lower elevation wetlands, limiting woody vegetation encroachment, and experimentally restoring the hydrological regime of affected wetlands., © Ashleigh M. Westphal 2019. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright heron may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems – without written permission of the author., secretive marsh bird, Kootenays, British Columbia, hydro, water management, wetlands
Restoring hydrological connectivity in the Guichon Creek watershed through wetland creation
Urbanization of areas alters the natural hydrology of the land through the creation of impervious surfaces, removal of vegetation, and construction of storm sewer systems. These alterations impact physical processes and the biological communities of our waterways through the introduction of pollutants, creation of uncharacteristic hydrological regimes, and habitat loss and fragmentation. Integration of natural areas in our built environments will mitigate some of these effects and reduce the degradation of streams in urbanized watersheds. Guichon Creek flows through an urbanized environment, which includes the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) Burnaby campus. A tributary flows into Guichon Creek at the south end of campus and the majority of its flow is from a stormwater sewer which receives runoff from the residential area east of campus. The tributary is approximately 150 metres and runs between a community garden and a small gravel parking lot before entering Guichon Creek. This project proposes restoration of a 2,000 m2 parcel of land between Guichon Creek and the tributary. Restoration activities involve removal of an existing parking lot, management of invasive hybrid Japanese knotweed (Fallopia x bohemica) and Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus), creation of an off channel wetland, and addition of natural in-stream structures to the tributary. Wetlands provide important hydrological and ecological functions that will contribute to the restoration efforts on Guichon Creek. This wetland will improve hydrological functions of the Guichon Creek floodplain through increased groundwater infiltration, creation of a storage area, and pollutant filtration. Improving these functions is also an important component of making stream ecosystems more resilient to climate change. The wetland will also provide ecological benefits such as improved water quality and creation of amphibian habitat. This project focuses on the creation of habitat for northern red-legged frog (Rana aurora) and the Pacific chorus frog (Psuedacris regilla). Another important component of restoration in an urban environment is creating a connection between people and the environment. Restoration of this space provides opportunities for public involvement and environmental education and awareness. This creates a forum to discuss the effects of urbanization on streams and show people where the runoff from their neighbourhood ends up. Forming that connection between people and their environment is an important step to creating interest and involvement in environmental issues.
A riparian restoration plan for a construction site on the Brunette River
Urbanization has altered riparian ecosystems, resulting in the decline of species that depend on them. The Brunette River in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia is no exception; though it currently supports a range of biotas, many of them are at-risk. These impacts are further accentuated by the expansion of the Trans Mountain Pipeline, which will result in the removal of a portion of critical habitat for the endangered Nooksack Dace. In light of the cultural significance of the basin to Kwikwetlem First Nations, the goal of this plan is to improve conditions at the project site post-construction through the establishment of culturally and ecologically important species and the addition of habitat features. I completed soil, vegetation, and water quality surveys to inform my prescriptions. Recommendations include the management of non-native species using manual and mechanical control methods and the planting of a native riparian community that fits within the confines of human infrastructure. A robust monitoring plan is also provided., critical habitat, exotic species, First Nations, restoration, riparian, urbanization
Splendor without spoil: restoring tidal channel habitat on Swishwash Island
Restoration of estuarine and tidal marsh habitats in Canada’s Fraser River estuary is imperative for the conservation and recovery of select depressed Pacific salmon populations and the many species that depend on them. In the 1930’s through to 1940’s, dredge spoils were deposited on East Swishwash Island, permanently altering the small delta island’s geomorphology and ecology. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1.) Confirm and describe fish use of remnant tidal channel habitat on Swishwash Island, using juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) as a focal species and 2.) Quantify the historical tidal channel loss on East Swishwash Island and potential for restoration. Tidal channels and adjacent marshes were sampled for realized fish use, plant distributions, basic water parameters, and large woody debris (potential predator refugia). Remote data sets (historical and present-day) were used to quantify historic, current, and future tidal channel density scenarios. Swishwash tidal channels were utilized during the sampling period by Chinook salmon with comparable relative abundances and fork lengths. Tidal channel capacity and marsh habitat have been reduced by 50% on East Swishwash Island due to spoil deposition and marsh erosion. Based on reference conditions derived from undisturbed and historic marsh islands, restoring island elevations could facilitate the addition of 1 km of marsh edge while increasing tidal channel area on East Swishwash Island by nearly 200%. This would provide important habitat in a fragmented distributary of the Fraser River estuary to species of fish and wildlife, including 3 ecotypes of juvenile Chinook salmon., © Kyle Armstrong, 2019. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright heron may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems – without written permission of the author., Estuaries, Chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, rearing, restoration, mitigation, tidal channels
Structural influence of old field on breeding summer songbirds, and overwintering raptor communities
Old field is a unnatural habitat that usually occurs as a result of agricultural land abandonment and is the product of early-stage natural succession on a previously managed field. In an agricultural setting with monoculture crops, old fields provide more vegetative complexity through ground cover diversity and shrubs and hedgerows. In Delta, British Columbia, several old-field sites are managed for wildlife and provide nesting habitat for songbirds over the summer, as well as foraging habitat for overwintering raptors during fall and winter months. I surveyed two old-field sites near Boundary Bay, and two field sites at the Vancouver Landfill to compare the influence of old-field vegetation on different bird communities and improve understanding on species using the landfill. I conducted fixed-radius point counts for songbirds, and standing counts for raptors. Comparing replicate field types (n=2) I found that overall diversity of songbirds was higher in old field, and also associated with structural features like shrubs and trees, while abundances of Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) decreased with proximity to shrubs and trees. My results support the conclusion that installing structural vegetation features at the landfill would maximize breeding songbird diversity. I also found the landfill to support higher diversity of wintering raptor species, but old field supported consistently higher abundances. This suggests that the landfill is currently functioning as lower quality wintering habitat, and that different management techniques should be considered.
A Test of ARP Topic Categories
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Throwing shade
Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) is an invasive grass common in wetlands and riparian areas throughout the Pacific Northwest. It is highly adaptable and resistant to many control methods, but is vulnerable to shading. We sought to control reed canarygrass by establishing desirable native shrubs to overtop and shade it. Plots were rototilled, mulched, live-staked, and monitored for 2-6 growing seasons. We tested 1) effective planting densities by live-staking hardhack (Spiraea douglasii) at 50, 30, and 15 cm spacing, 2) relative species performance by planting hardhack, red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), and thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus), all at 30 cm densities, and 3) alternative site preparation methods by using cardboard mulch or excavating the top 20 cm of topsoil. Higher planting density significantly reduced reed canarygrass cover and biomass. Both hardhack and red-osier dogwood successfully suppressed reed canarygrass, though thimbleberry did not. No significant differences between site preparation methods were observed., reed canarygrass, Phalaris arundinacea, invasive species management, live staking, planting density, Spiraea douglasii
Using 10-years of population monitoring data to assess breeding productivity of the Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa)
Relationships between changing environmental variables and amphibian populations have been understudied. Yet, alterations to temperature and precipitation have been suggested as contributors to the decline of some pond-breeding species, such as the Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa). R. pretiosa has been classified as the most endangered amphibian in Canada, yet the cause for its decline is unknown. Therefore, this paper examined associations between temperature and precipitation, and R. pretiosa population trends, using a 10-year data set from two breeding populations in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. Timing of oviposition was positively related to higher temperature and increased precipitation within both populations (p<0.05). No statistical relationship was determined between egg mass productivity and temperature or precipitation; however, this paper proposes that further research, consistent protocols and longer study periods, is necessary in order to determine environmental variables as possible predictors of population success. This paper recommends the evaluation of breeding success through survivorship studies, as such methods provide insight into productivity as the primary determinant for population recruitment. Further, ecological restoration efforts can be implemented to help ameliorate negative consequences climate change poses on reproductive success., amphibian, climate change, conservation, ecological restoration, endangered, population dynamics, population monitoring, survivorship

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