Master of Science in Ecological Restoration Applied Research Projects | BCIT Institutional Repository

Master of Science in Ecological Restoration Applied Research Projects

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Assessing the allelopathic effect of invasive phragmites australis on sida hermaphrodita and ammannia robusta; two species at risk in Southern Ontario
In Ontario, invasive Phragmites australis threatens to displace many species including the endangered species Sida hermaphrodita and Ammannia robusta. Germination and growth assays measured the effect of P. australis aqueous extracts from the leaves, rhizomes, and roots on S. hermaphrodita and A. robusta. Germination was inhibited by some of the treatments, but growth was not. The tissues inhibited germination differently for S. hermaphrodita (leaf> rhizome> root) compared to A. robusta (root> rhizome> leaf) indicating that the allelopathic effect was species-specific. However, the laboratory results show that allelopathic effects are weak. This result is consistent to the field study results showing an increase in S. hermaphrodita area and density over time. Results from this project inform management options by indicating which part of the plant needs to be targeted. In this case, all the tissues had some phytotoxic effects, indicating that biomass may need to be removed or long-term management implemented., Invasive Species, Species at Risk, Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, Allelopathy
Assessing the potential impact of English ivy (Hedera helix) on the arthropod community of Stanley Park
English ivy (Hedera helix) is a vine species that had been introduced to North America in colonial times. Extensive monocultures of English ivy and the attachment to other plants have been shown to impact native flora of North America. Its impact on native fauna has been overlooked. I sampled arthropods in six native plant plots and six English ivy plots in Stanley Park, British Columbia. A weekly collection of arthropods through pitfall traps was conducted from May to August 2019. There was no significant difference in arthropod diversity and total abundance of groups between native and ivy plots. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was used to show distances between beetle community compositions. There was a large overlap of beetle compositions despite three families found exclusively in native plots. Implications for managing and restoring English ivy of the park were discussed., NMDS, Hedera helix, Invasive species, Arthropods, Ecological restoration, Beetles as indicators, © Tianbi Wu, 2020. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright heron may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems – without written permission of the author.
Assessment of an urban floodplain reconnection project: A case study from the Mamquam River basin, BC.
Dikes and culverts have limited access to off-channel rearing habitats important to juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhyncus kisutch). This study assessed the success of a floodplain reconnection project in Squamish, BC, at providing rearing habitats. Recommendations on restoration priorities within the area were also provided. A single-season, multi-scale occupancy model was used to estimate the probability of occurrence and detection of juvenile coho during the summer. Regression models were used to assess water and habitat quality and identify relationships with juvenile coho metrics. Culverts were also scored for fish passage. The results of this study indicate that the reconnection project was overall successful. Coho non-detections occurred in areas with poor dissolved oxygen and culvert passage issues. Restoration actions should focus on improving water quality in these areas, and protection of areas of high CPUE. Positive relationships between stream productivity and coho metrics indicates the importance of future studies on macroinvertebrate supply., coho salmon, escape cover, rearing habitat, floodplain reconnection, urban channels, Mamquam River
Biological soil crusts for reclamation of mine tailings
Research was conducted examining biocrust development on reclaimed mine tailings and testing amendments to enhance biocrust establishment. Three reclaimed Canadian mine sites were samples for biocrusts: Endako mine (BC), Brenda mines (BC) and Gaspe mines (QC). Sampling showed Cladonia sp. lichen dominating the lichen samples. Microbial biomass was seen to be lower in older biocrusts, correlated to carbon content and, higher in microbial or moss dominated biocrusts. Carbon fraction was higher than mineral soils while nitrogen fraction was closer to organic soils. The biocrust samples also showed higher Al, P, K, S and Mg concentrations but lower Fe concentrations, than the sub-surface tailings sand. Experiments with amendments on the exposed tailings of Gibraltar mines (BC), showed an enhanced chlorophyll response to inoculation, fertilization and partial shading. Use of an organic media significantly enhanced moss productivity. This research project demonstrates the potential to use biocrusts for reclamation on mine tailings facilities., © Shantanu Dutt, 2020. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright heron may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems – without written permission of the author.
Blue carbon dynamics across the Metro Vancouver region
This research project aims to assess the carbon sequestration dynamics of three tidal marshes under different environmental conditions in the Metro Vancouver region. By identifying the site conditions that influence carbon sequestration, areas can be prioritized, and restoration activities can be adapted to increase or maintains the marsh’s ability to do so. This project was done in partnership with Parks Canada and will contribute to a larger study of ‘blue carbon’ across British Columbia. For this project, I collected sediment cores from the eastern portion of Boundary Bay in Delta, BC, Brunswick Point in Ladner, BC, and a constructed salt marsh in Tsawwassen, BC, to assess soil carbon content and carbon stocks. Porewater salinity, vegetation data and depth measurements were collected at these sites as well. Percent carbon content ranged between 3.98 ± 1.48% and 5.78 ± 5.93% between the three marshes and the marsh carbon stock ranged between 93.95 Mg C and 2,994.51 Mg C. Across the three marshes, core carbon stock for the high marsh cores was found to be significantly higher than the core carbon stock for the low marsh cores, suggesting that marsh zonation influences carbon stock. The data analysis and literature review determined that vegetation and porewater salinity had the greatest influence on a marsh’s ability to sequester and store carbon. The results indicate that the high marsh with low salinities and a diverse plant community have the highest carbon sequestration potential. As marshes with conditions similar to that of the Boundary Bay marsh as well as polyhaline marshes should be prioritized for restoration. These findings will aid in the development and implementation of restoration projects to increase a marsh’s ability to sequester carbon., blue carbon, tidal marsh, carbon stock, British Columbia, coastal management, restoration, marsh restoration
Breeding waterfowl use of restored wetlands in the Cariboo region of British Columbia
This study investigated effects of wetland size and emergent vegetation cover on breeding waterfowl and young at 12 restored wetlands in the Cariboo region of British Columbia. Repeated ground surveys were conducted throughout summer 2019 to determine total abundance, density and species richness of waterfowl. Surveyed wetlands varied in size and emergent cover. Large (16-19 ha) wetlands had greater breeding total abundance and lower breeding and brood densities than smaller wetlands. Total abundance of breeding waterfowl and young were highest when wetlands had less than 60% emergent cover. Previous studies suggest that high densities of waterfowl decrease young survival. Restorations created to benefit several species of breeding waterfowl may want to restore wetlands that are large (>16 ha) and have less than 30% emergent vegetation cover. These wetlands had higher total abundances and lower densities than other categories studied, however, certain species may depend on smaller wetlands which should be researched further., Cariboo region, wetland restoration, breeding waterfowl, emergent vegetation
Carbon sequestration and storage potential along the Trans-Canada Highway corridor in Chilliwack, BC
As of 2017, more than 4 billion people live in urban areas (Ritchie 2018). As people continue to move from rural to urban areas, the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in urban areas will continue to rise. However, this may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration by expanding urban forests (Baines et al. 2020). While the BC government has implemented reforestation projects on logged, provincial land, and has released a Community Toolkit for municipalities to increase their treed environments, there is still available land to be planted between the provincial and municipal land (Cullington et al. 2008). Trees are an important tool for CO2 sequestration and storage. The open landscapes of the Trans-Canada Highway right-of-ways presents an underutilized opportunity to increase the treed environment for carbon sequestration and storage along this open vehicle corridor. This project seeks to model the current carbon sequestration level and the carbon sequestration potential for different vegetation types along the Trans-Canada Highway and develop recommendations for revegetation plans to increase carbon sequestration along this heavily used vehicle corridor. The study site resides along a 20 km stretch of the Trans-Canada Highway in Chilliwack, British Columbia. This area was chosen as it is an agricultural community with very few treed areas. The area was split into the Chilliwack North Polygon (CNP) and the Chilliwack South Polygon (CSP) on ArcMap, on which a grid of 20 m by 20 m squares were laid, which is necessary for transferring the data collected in the field into i-Tree Eco v6.0 (n.d.). The program i-Tree Eco uses measurements, such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and ground cover class, taken in the field to estimate ecosystem services and structural characteristics of the Chilliwack area. Throughout the CNP and CSP areas, 12 were selected based on accessibility, safety, and site representation. The program i-Tree Canopy v7.0 (n.d.) was also used to bolster this information by estimating tree cover and tree benefits for the Chilliwack area through satellite imagery by randomly selecting 500 sampling points throughout the CNP and CSP areas. Grass surveys were conducted in 1 m by 1 m quadrats placed in an area representative of the selected 20 m by 20 m quadrat (i.e. a homogenous area that represents the majority of the vegetation in the plot). Grasses were identified on site to genus or species whenever possible, and their percent cover measured. Soil samples were also taken within the 1 m by 1 m quadrat within the first 15 cm. As these sample sites house anthroposols, sampling within the first 15 cm was selected to capture conditions in the root zone for plant growth. The soil samples taken were used to determine soil texture and soil pH for planting purposes. Finally, a review of highway management practices was done to identify areas where improvements can be made to increase carbon sequestration. Practical management suggestions are based on the results from the above-mentioned analyses. The program i-Tree Eco v6.0 (n.d) indicated that the CNP had the greatest carbon storage of 172,787.3 kg/ha, while the CSP had 15,270.8 kg/ha. The CNP is able to store 11,554.2 tonnes of carbon while the CSP was only able to store 546.1 tonnes of carbon. However, the CNP had an annual net carbon sequestration of - 57.2 tonnes/yr while the CSP has 2.5 tonnes/yr. Red alder (Alnus rubra) comprised 52.3% of tree species recorded and had the highest carbon storage of 6,322.7 tonnes, followed by bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) with 3,186.0 tonnes, black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) with 1416.3 tonnes, western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) with 1155.6 tonnes, and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) with 19.7 tonnes. The annual net carbon sequestration of red alders however was - 2.2 tonnes/yr, while bigleaf maple had the highest with 3.7 tonne/yr. The program i-Tree Canopy v7.0 (n.d.) indicated that overall, there was 125.37 tonnes of carbon sequestered annually in trees within the CNP and CSP, with 3,734.34 tonnes stored. The ground cover composition of the CNP had a greater composition of shrub (61.1%) and tree (16%) compared to the CSP, while the CSP had greater plantable space (65.4%). This data was used to characterize the study area and model the current carbon sequestration and storage. New management strategies were proposed and native vegetation suitable for the study area was identified.
A climate adaptation plan: Identifying thermal refugia for salmonids in the Tsolum River
Stream temperatures in the Pacific Northwest are increasing due to climate change, resulting in thermal stress for salmonids. Groundwater is a cooler source of water into streams, providing thermal refugia. The goal of this Applied Research Project was to identify groundwater input areas in the Tsolum River, using temperature loggers to trace the thermal signal of groundwater. A total of 28 water temperature loggers and 2 air temperature loggers were deployed within the watershed in the summer of 2019. Results showed that 12 sites may be influenced by groundwater input. Restoration/management actions such as riparian planting, gravel bar live staking, and restrictions on groundwater withdrawal are recommended to decrease stream temperatures. This study demonstrated that temperature loggers can be deployed within streams to identify areas of groundwater input. The identification of thermal refugia within the Tsolum River and other salmonid-bearing streams will help to protect salmonids from climate change impacts., climate adaptation, thermal refugia, Tsolum River, groundwater
Collaborative exploration of novel bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana) restoration techniques in an urban ecosystem
This applied research project serves as the first year of a collaborative project between the Tsleil-Waututh Nation and Kelp Rescue Initiative aimed at tailoring bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana) restoration methodologies to Burrard Inlet. This research characterized abiotic and biotic conditions at reference sites, compared these conditions to three identified restoration sites to determine their viability for larger-scale restoration, and trialled the green gravel and kelp-seeded tile restoration methods. This study concluded New Brighton Park has sufficiently large substrate to be a restoration site in future years. Naturally recruited N. luetkeana was found from the low intertidal to a maximum depth of 3 metres below chart datum at an average sporophyte density of ~3 sporophytes per m2 in the late summer. The restoration trials saw limited success past April; however, lessons learned suggest outplanting larger kelp-seeded rocks and attaching kelp-seeded tiles to larger substrate could increase restoration success., macroalgae, kelp, Nereocystis luetkeana, restoration, green gravel
A contrast of two novel deterrents of goose herbivory at Westham Island foreshore tidal marsh
Since the 1980s, at least 160 ha of marsh vegetation has died off in Sturgeon Bank and Westham Island, located within the Fraser River Estuary. Proposed causes for this marsh recession include sediment deficit, relative sea-level rise, increased salinity, and goose herbivory. At Westham Island, the loss of tidal marsh vegetation is locally distinct in that it occurs in a closed polygon shape versus along the leading edge of the marsh, suggesting that goose herbivory is a principal cause. Goose herbivory on tidal marsh vegetation has become a global problem as many geese populations are becoming hyperabundant. In the Fraser River Estuary, Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and snow goose (Anser caerulescens) numbers have been increasing exponentially. I conducted a field experiment, testing two novel goose herbivory deterrents at Westham Island’s foreshore tidal marsh: metal and snow fencing placed flat against the substrate. I used a randomized complete block design with six replicates and three treatments: metal fencing, snow fencing and control (no fencing). Each treatment's effectiveness was assessed by monitoring changes in common three-square bulrush (Schoenoplectus pungens) every two weeks throughout the summer season (June-September 2022) in terms of stem density, percent cover, and percent of stems grazed. Results indicated that there was no difference in stem density, percent cover, and percent of stems grazed between the two fencing types. However, compared to bulrush in the controls, both snow and metal fencing treatments yielded a higher stem density and percent cover (x̄% difference = 82.9%, 53.1%, respectively) as well as a lower percent of stems grazed. These results suggest that both fencing materials are equally effective at deterring goose herbivory in a tidal marsh. Additional assessments are needed to clarify whether this technique can be scaled up to promote marsh recovery throughout the entire area of recession., tidal marsh recession, goose herbivory deterrents, goose management, Canada geese, common three-square bulrush, snow fencing, chain-link fencing
Determining the Accuracy of the Beaver Restoration Assessment Tool for Identifying North American Beaver (Castor canadensis) Habitat in the Central Interior Cariboo Region of British Columbia
Perennial watercourses in British Columbia are becoming intermittent from climate change. North American beaver (Castor canadensis) dams retain perennial flow while providing other ecosystem services. The Beaver Restoration Assessment Tool (BRAT) estimates a stream’s dam capacity by evaluating the vegetative, physical, and hydrological habitat. This research project surveyed 15 streams in the Cariboo region to assess the accuracy of the BRAT’s outputs. Climate data were used to model changes in flow. Overall, the BRAT outputs generally correlated with field measurements. However, the non-vegetation outputs contributed minimally to dam capacity, and higher dam capacity did not always indicate higher habitat quality. Climate projections also indicate most streams will lose nival flow by 2041-2071. Therefore, using the BRAT with other models can determine both dam capacity and overall habitat quality to increase successful beaver restoration chances. When vegetation and physical stream conditions are met, higher watershed/channel size may indicate higher-quality habitat.
Determining the accuracy of the beaver restoration assessment tool for identifying North American beaver (Castor canadensis) habitat in the Central Interior Cariboo region of British Columbia
Perennial watercourses in British Columbia are becoming intermittent from climate change. North American beaver (Castor canadensis) dams retain perennial flow while providing other ecosystem services. The Beaver Restoration Assessment Tool (BRAT) estimates a stream’s dam capacity by evaluating the vegetative, physical, and hydrological habitat. This research project surveyed 15 streams in the Cariboo region to assess the accuracy of the BRAT’s outputs. Climate data were used to model changes in flow. Overall, the BRAT outputs generally correlated with field measurements. However, the non-vegetation outputs contributed minimally to dam capacity, and higher dam capacity did not always indicate higher habitat quality. Climate projections also indicate most streams will lose nival flow by 2041-2071. Therefore, using the BRAT with other models can determine both dam capacity and overall habitat quality to increase successful beaver restoration chances. When vegetation and physical stream conditions are met, higher watershed/channel size may indicate higher-quality habitat.
Drivers of humpback whale movement in Boundary Pass, British Columbia
The Salish Sea is critical habitat for several whale species including the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Boundary Pass is part of the Salish Sea and connects the Pacific Ocean to several commercial shipping ports in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America. Since 1997, the number of Humpback whales continues to increase in this area, meanwhile the number of vessels is also increasing such that Boundary Pass is among the busiest shipping routes in the region. This high vessel traffic in the area leads to acoustic disturbances that degrades whale foraging opportunities for humpback whales. Commercial vessels transporting goods through whale habitat causes an increased risk of vessel collisions with humpback whales. Humpback-whale movements in Boundary Pass was recorded through systematic scan surveys conduction from a vantage point between June and August. Whale occupancy was compared to oceanographic variables and vessel presence. We found humpback whales were most likely to be present during ebb tides of speeds of -2 m/s under the influence of low tides and also whales were active in areas overlap with shipping lane in the area. Based on our founding in the area about humpback whale connection with biophysical properties of region I hypothesized that whale distribution in area and it relation to low tide and ebb current is most probably under the influence of food abundance in those periods of time. This study concludes with policy recommendations for improving humpback whale foraging grounds by reducing acoustic harassment and risk of ship strikes in the Boundary Pass., Humpback whale, movements, oceanographic variables, Boundary pass, Salish sea, Vessel strike, tide, currents, SST, salinity
The dynamics of wetland water loss in Churn Creek protected area
Twelve Churn Creek Protected Area wetlands were characterized to gain an understanding of the potential factors affecting their water loss. Monitoring consisted of pond area, depth, and temperature measurements at twelve wetlands, and additional comprehensive monitoring at five wetlands, encompassing (1) randomized quadrat emergent vegetation sampling with canopy climate monitoring and beneath-canopy water property monitoring; (2) permanent radial soil transect sampling through compaction, electrical conductivity, moisture, and temperature measurements. Findings revealed that the rate of water loss at each wetland is dependent on its specific biological, chemical, and physical characteristics. A wetland’s elevational position in the landscape, as well as its basin shape and size, and vegetative cover and density, all played a prominent role in determining the rate of water loss. These findings underscored the importance of prioritizing vegetated wetlands in future monitoring efforts and serve as a foundation for comprehensive studies in CCPA and British Columbia grassland ecosystems., closed-basin wetland, wetland hydrology, wetland water loss, pond evapotranspiration, semi-arid grasslands, wetland water balance
Eco-cultural restoration of wetlands at Tl’chés (Chatham Islands), British Columbia, Canada
My research project examined the restoration possibilities for two culturally important wetland ecosystems at Tl’chés (Chatham Islands, British Columbia, Canada). The first wetland is a sacred bathing pool and holds cultural significance, the second is a remnant silverweed and springbank clover (Potentilla anserine ssp. pacifica and Trifollium wormskjoldii) root garden. These wetlands are necessary ecosystems for the wildlife on Tl’chés as wetlands are rare, but also an integral part of Songhees’ cultural practices. My work was done at the invitation from elder Súlhlima (Joan Morris) who was one of the last resident of the islands and retains hereditary rights there, and Songhees Chief Ron Sam and band council. The goal of my project was to develop a restoration plan to restore the wetlands to pre-abandonment conditions, so cultural practices can continue, and to benefit the islands native plant and animal species. The project highlights the value of combining traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and traditional resource and environmental management (TREM) practices with ecological restoration., Eco-cultural restoration, wetland ecosystems, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), traditional resource and environmental management (TREM), estuarine root gardens, Songhees First Nation
Ecological restoration of the Little Qualicum River Estuary: Analysis of short-term sediment deposition
Restoration of the Little Qualicum River Estuary has focused on re-establishing the Carex lyngbyei channel edge vegetation lost to grubbing by the overabundant resident Canada goose population. Short-term sediment deposition rates were measured using weekly deployments of sediment traps between June and July 2019 to investigate how restoration is facilitating sediment retention to rebuild the marsh platform. Deposition rates varied between 6.82-107.88 g/m2/week with traps deployed on the denuded mud flat areas collecting more sediments than inside the older exclosures. It had been expected that the exclosures with a greater density of sedges would retain more sediment. Spatial variation may be attributed to differences in sampling elevations. Restoring C. lyngbyei may not increase localized sediment deposition directly but does protect the continued supply of organic input from the seasonal senescence of C. lyngbyei. The organic input from aboveground biomass may have a larger contribution to marsh accretion than allochthonous sediments., sediment deposition, Carex lyngbyei, estuary, restoration, Canada goose

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