Master of Science in Ecological Restoration Applied Research Projects | BCIT Institutional Repository

Master of Science in Ecological Restoration Applied Research Projects

Assessing the potential impact of English ivy (Hedera helix) on the arthropod community of Stanley Park
English ivy (Hedera helix) is a vine species that had been introduced to North America in colonial times. Extensive monocultures of English ivy and the attachment to other plants have been shown to impact native flora of North America. Its impact on native fauna has been overlooked. I sampled arthropods in six native plant plots and six English ivy plots in Stanley Park, British Columbia. A weekly collection of arthropods through pitfall traps was conducted from May to August 2019. There was no significant difference in arthropod diversity and total abundance of groups between native and ivy plots. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was used to show distances between beetle community compositions. There was a large overlap of beetle compositions despite three families found exclusively in native plots. Implications for managing and restoring English ivy of the park were discussed., NMDS, Hedera helix, Invasive species, Arthropods, Ecological restoration, Beetles as indicators, © Tianbi Wu, 2020. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright heron may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems – without written permission of the author.
Biological soil crusts for reclamation of mine tailings
Research was conducted examining biocrust development on reclaimed mine tailings and testing amendments to enhance biocrust establishment. Three reclaimed Canadian mine sites were samples for biocrusts: Endako mine (BC), Brenda mines (BC) and Gaspe mines (QC). Sampling showed Cladonia sp. lichen dominating the lichen samples. Microbial biomass was seen to be lower in older biocrusts, correlated to carbon content and, higher in microbial or moss dominated biocrusts. Carbon fraction was higher than mineral soils while nitrogen fraction was closer to organic soils. The biocrust samples also showed higher Al, P, K, S and Mg concentrations but lower Fe concentrations, than the sub-surface tailings sand. Experiments with amendments on the exposed tailings of Gibraltar mines (BC), showed an enhanced chlorophyll response to inoculation, fertilization and partial shading. Use of an organic media significantly enhanced moss productivity. This research project demonstrates the potential to use biocrusts for reclamation on mine tailings facilities., © Shantanu Dutt, 2020. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright heron may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems – without written permission of the author.
Breeding waterfowl use of restored wetlands in the Cariboo region of British Columbia
This study investigated effects of wetland size and emergent vegetation cover on breeding waterfowl and young at 12 restored wetlands in the Cariboo region of British Columbia. Repeated ground surveys were conducted throughout summer 2019 to determine total abundance, density and species richness of waterfowl. Surveyed wetlands varied in size and emergent cover. Large (16-19 ha) wetlands had greater breeding total abundance and lower breeding and brood densities than smaller wetlands. Total abundance of breeding waterfowl and young were highest when wetlands had less than 60% emergent cover. Previous studies suggest that high densities of waterfowl decrease young survival. Restorations created to benefit several species of breeding waterfowl may want to restore wetlands that are large (>16 ha) and have less than 30% emergent vegetation cover. These wetlands had higher total abundances and lower densities than other categories studied, however, certain species may depend on smaller wetlands which should be researched further., Cariboo region, wetland restoration, breeding waterfowl, emergent vegetation
Ecological restoration of the Little Qualicum River Estuary: Analysis of short-term sediment deposition
Restoration of the Little Qualicum River Estuary has focused on re-establishing the Carex lyngbyei channel edge vegetation lost to grubbing by the overabundant resident Canada goose population. Short-term sediment deposition rates were measured using weekly deployments of sediment traps between June and July 2019 to investigate how restoration is facilitating sediment retention to rebuild the marsh platform. Deposition rates varied between 6.82-107.88 g/m2/week with traps deployed on the denuded mud flat areas collecting more sediments than inside the older exclosures. It had been expected that the exclosures with a greater density of sedges would retain more sediment. Spatial variation may be attributed to differences in sampling elevations. Restoring C. lyngbyei may not increase localized sediment deposition directly but does protect the continued supply of organic input from the seasonal senescence of C. lyngbyei. The organic input from aboveground biomass may have a larger contribution to marsh accretion than allochthonous sediments., sediment deposition, Carex lyngbyei, estuary, restoration, Canada goose
The effect of prescribed burns on soil characteristics and plant communities in Garry Oak ecosystems. A case study on a three-year post-burn site on Tumbo Island, Gulf Islands National Park Reserve
This research project evaluates the outcomes of returning prescribed fire to endangered Garry oak meadows as a restoration treatment. This project was done in partnership with Parks Canada and involved a case study on a three-year post-burn site on Tumbo Island in the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve. Soil chemical properties were analyzed three years post burn in the summer of 2019 and compared to pre and post-burn vegetation survey results. Analysis identified beneficial changes in soil chemistry still present three years post treatment. Invasive species occurrences increased across the site, regardless of treatment, and around half of the invasive species occurrences were recorded on burn treatments areas in 2018. Prescribed burns on shallow soil Garry oak meadow sites showed beneficial outcomes for soil chemistry, reduced conifer encroachment, increased diversity and Arbutus (Arbutus menziesii) seedling recruitment. These findings aid in determining restoration plans for shallow soil Garry oak meadows, highlighting the numerous benefits from prescribed fire, while also suggesting that additional treatments in conjunction with prescribed fire will be needed to control invasive plants when planning to restore these ecosystems., shallow soil, Garry oak meadows, restoration, prescribed fire, soil nutrients, invasive plant species
Effects of logging-induced sediment loading on Chinook salmon rearing habitat in Tranquil Estuary, BC and implications for estuary restoration
Research on estuaries has increased in recent years, however, the effects of logging on estuaries and the effects of estuary habitat loss on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Pacific northwest is limited. To address habitat loss associated with logging, I used an extensive aerial photo record for Tranquil Creek estuary and an unlogged control to analyze changes in salt marsh area, elevation and volume, supplemented with a grain size distribution analysis. While I failed to find evidence of a difference between a logged and an unlogged estuary, some negative trends in salt marsh area and elevation observed over the observational period were indicative of changes that are unfavorable for juvenile Chinook salmon. Analytical methods presented here to assess changes in two remote coastal estuaries has contributed to the current knowledge on the effects of logging on estuarine ecosystems in coastal BC and provide tools for innovative estuary habitat restoration., aerial photograph analysis, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), salt marsh, estuary restoration, logging, sediment
Factors limiting the expansion of black-tailed prairie dog colonies at their northern extent
Prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are considered a keystone species due to their ecological role in maintaining the prairies. In Canada, they are federally listed as a threatened species. This study was conducted to identify the limiting factors to the expansion of prairie dog colonies in Grasslands National Park, Saskatchewan. I tested different hypotheses to compare landforms, vegetation, and soil characteristics in three treatments: consistently occupied (Consistent), inconsistently occupied (Inconsistent), and never occupied (Buffer) by prairie dogs. I sampled four prairie dog colonies (blocks) from 17 July 2019 to 28 August 2019 using a randomized complete block design. I used ANOVA to test variables for significant differences among treatments. My results showed that hills, water channel, shrublands, grass cover, shrub cover and vegetation height classes (>30 cm) were significantly higher (p <0.05) in Buffer compared to Consistent and Inconsistent. Shrubs and tall vegetation should be mowed down to enhance the expansion of prairie dog colonies for restoring their population., restoration, prairie dogs, Cynomys ludovicianus, colony expansion, barriers, habitat use
Investigation of the effects of soil and biochar in a rain garden on stormwater quality improvement
Stormwater runoff from parking lots often contains a variety of elements and compounds in different forms and concentration that may pose risks to biota in receiving aquatic systems. Heavy metals including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of particular concern in such runoff due to their prevalence, toxicity to aquatic organisms and persistence in environment. The ability of commercially available biochar to remove pollutants of concern through column treatments was assessed in this research. Different treatments of biochar were considered and their ability to remove pollutants was compared to soil. The biochar (Emergent and Cantimber) used in this study showed a significant higher molecular weight PAHs removal ability compared to soil and followed the order of Cantimber > Emergent > soil. The effects of heavy metals and PAHs on aquatic organisms and plants degradation can be mitigated by amending the soil media with biochar in the bioretention cells such as raingarden. This could be applied in real world where stormwater runoff can be treated before entering into river or stream therefore cutting the need of future restoration., Emergent Biochar, Cantimber Biochar, Parking lot stormwater, Low impact development, Heavy metals, PAHs, Constructed wetlands
Marsh resiliency strategies in the face of sea-level rise: Pilot project opportunities for Fraser River delta tidal marshes
Coastal wetlands are naturally resilient to changing sea levels; however, as rates of sea-level rise increase, the interaction between changing sea-level and ongoing human impacts will be a major driver in future coastal tidal marsh stability. My goal is to provide decision makers with recommendations to increase the resilience of the Fraser River delta front tidal marsh communities over the twenty-first century. I conducted a literature review to (1) examine the current knowledge base regarding effects of sea-level rise on tidal marshes and (2) identify current ecosystem-based adaptation strategies for increasing tidal marsh resilience to sea-level rise. Based on this review, recommendations are made for strategies that could be used to increase tidal marsh resilience in the Fraser River delta. Recommendations include (1) initiating delta-wide marsh accretion modeling to assess tidal marsh vulnerability under possible sea-level rise scenarios and (2) implementing sediment augmentation pilot projects for both direct (e.g., layered sediment lifts) and indirect (e.g., mud motor) sediment augmentation strategies to test ecosystem based adaptive management strategies as part of an adaptive management framework.
Nanaimo River estuary restoration: an assessment of berm removal on benthic macroinvertebrates in tidal channels
Macroinvertebrates in two berm-impacted tidal channels (Site A and Site B) were compared to a natural channel (Site C) to determine short-term response to berm removal restoration using a BACI study design. Multivariate analysis indicates that the benthic community composition shifted from before berm removal to after berm removal conditions but not in a predictable organized way. Total abundance was highest at Site A in both conditions (before and after berm-removal). Invertebrate diversity was similar and low among sites. Biomass was highest at Site C. Organic matter percentage was highest at Site C in both conditions and it appeared to increase in Site A and Site B after berm removal. Silt & Clay (>0.0063mm) were statistically different in Site C compared to Site A and Site B although very fine sand was the highest in percentage among sites and in both conditions. Berms affect channel and benthic invertebrate dynamics; time and more research are needed to fully restore the Nanaimo estuary., © Okezioghene Akporuno, 2020. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright heron may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems – without written permission of the author., Estuary restoration, Tidal channel, Benthic macroinvertebrate, Sediment, Detritus, Berm
Novel ecosystems: necessity, revolution, or laziness?
The earth’s environment, climate, and natural systems are constantly changing, having little resemblance of ecosystems past. These new systems functioning in balance are termed “novel ecosystems” and have arisen as the new normal posing an important question in the restoration field as to how these systems should be approached. To address the state of novel ecosystems in the academic literature, I devised a matrix to assess variables of description regarding novel ecosystems and how they are expressed in the literature. Results showed a predominance of self-assembled systems with a disposition towards invasive species as a primary threat. Chemical, physical, and landscape data was severely lacking and most metrics for success were ecological. Data from the literature show a lack of research on designed novel ecosystems but shows promise for success given several examples. More research on novel ecosystems in restoration must be undertaken to fill gaps in aggregate data., © Michael Paleologou, 2020. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright heron may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems – without written permission of the author., Ecological Restoration, Novel Ecosystems, Literature Review
Simplified structure or fewer arthropods to eat?
In agricultural landscapes, hedgerows provide critical habitat for songbirds. Himalayan Blackberry (Rubus armeniacus; HBB) is a widespread invasive species in the Pacific Northwest that has been linked to lower breeding songbird diversity. My study explored two possible explanatory mechanisms: educed structural complexity and lower arthropod abundance as a food source. I conducted avian point counts in 51 hedgerow segments at two locations in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. In these segments, I quantified vegetation structure using a Foliage Height Diversity (FHD) metric derived from LiDAR data. I sampled arthropod abundance on the foliage of woody understory vegetation. I used multiple regression to identify best fit generalized linear models. Songbird diversity decreased with HBB % cover and increased with FHD. However, arthropod abundance was unrelated to bird metrics, and similar between HBB and other native shrubs. This suggests that hedgerows should be managed to control HBB and maximize vegetation structure., songbird diversity, agricultural landscapes, Himalayan Blackberry, hedgerows, arthropods, LiDAR
Testing primed white rot fungi for bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil & bioremediation options plan for Napo concession area in Ecuador.
Bioremediation has gained traction for its sustainable principles. Although, advancements in effectiveness are still needed to enable widespread application. This research has two major components. First, priming fungi could prove to be a useful tool to increase efficiency of white-rot fungi when used to bioremediate petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil. This study evaluated T. versicolor colonized in two substrates to test this theory. TPH was extracted from the soils using hexane shaking method, and measured on a CG-MS. The study results were not conclusive, and more research should be conducted to determine if priming white-rot fungi can increase the effectiveness of degradation of TPH in contaminated soils. Second, historical and unethical oil production in Ecuador has left an environmental and human health disaster. The goal of this study was to produce a high-level bioremediation plan that can be used and amended for site specific applications in Ecuador.