This study investigated effects of wetland size and emergent vegetation cover on breeding waterfowl and young at 12 restored wetlands in the Cariboo region of British Columbia. Repeated ground surveys were conducted throughout summer 2019 to determine total abundance, density and species richness of waterfowl. Surveyed wetlands varied in size and emergent cover. Large (16-19 ha) wetlands had greater breeding total abundance and lower breeding and brood densities than smaller wetlands. Total abundance of breeding waterfowl and young were highest when wetlands had less than 60% emergent cover. Previous studies suggest that high densities of waterfowl decrease young survival. Restorations created to benefit several species of breeding waterfowl may want to restore wetlands that are large (>16 ha) and have less than 30% emergent vegetation cover. These wetlands had higher total abundances and lower densities than other categories studied, however, certain species may depend on smaller wetlands which should be researched further., Cariboo region, wetland restoration, breeding waterfowl, emergent vegetation
Stream temperatures in the Pacific Northwest are increasing due to climate change, resulting in thermal stress for salmonids. Groundwater is a cooler source of water into streams, providing thermal refugia. The goal of this Applied Research Project was to identify groundwater input areas in the Tsolum River, using temperature loggers to trace the thermal signal of groundwater. A total of 28 water temperature loggers and 2 air temperature loggers were deployed within the watershed in the summer of 2019. Results showed that 12 sites may be influenced by groundwater input. Restoration/management actions such as riparian planting, gravel bar live staking, and restrictions on groundwater withdrawal are recommended to decrease stream temperatures. This study demonstrated that temperature loggers can be deployed within streams to identify areas of groundwater input. The identification of thermal refugia within the Tsolum River and other salmonid-bearing streams will help to protect salmonids from climate change impacts., climate adaptation, thermal refugia, Tsolum River, groundwater
Restoration of the Little Qualicum River Estuary has focused on re-establishing the Carex lyngbyei channel edge vegetation lost to grubbing by the overabundant resident Canada goose population. Short-term sediment deposition rates were measured using weekly deployments of sediment traps between June and July 2019 to investigate how restoration is facilitating sediment retention to rebuild the marsh platform.
Deposition rates varied between 6.82-107.88 g/m2/week with traps deployed on the denuded mud flat areas collecting more sediments than inside the older exclosures. It had been expected that the exclosures with a greater density of sedges would retain more sediment. Spatial variation may be attributed to differences in sampling elevations. Restoring C. lyngbyei may not increase localized sediment deposition directly but does protect the continued supply of organic input from the seasonal senescence of C. lyngbyei. The organic input from aboveground biomass may have a larger contribution to marsh accretion than allochthonous sediments., sediment deposition, Carex lyngbyei, estuary, restoration, Canada goose
Research on estuaries has increased in recent years, however, the effects of logging on estuaries and the effects of estuary habitat loss on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Pacific northwest is limited. To address habitat loss associated with logging, I used an extensive aerial photo record for Tranquil Creek estuary and an unlogged control to analyze changes in salt marsh area, elevation and volume, supplemented with a grain size distribution analysis.
While I failed to find evidence of a difference between a logged and an unlogged estuary, some negative trends in salt marsh area and elevation observed over the observational period were indicative of changes that are unfavorable for juvenile Chinook salmon. Analytical methods presented here to assess changes in two remote coastal estuaries has contributed to the current knowledge on the effects of logging on estuarine ecosystems in coastal BC and provide tools for innovative estuary habitat restoration., aerial photograph analysis, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), salt marsh, estuary restoration, logging, sediment
Stormwater runoff from parking lots often contains a variety of elements and compounds in different forms and concentration that may pose risks to biota in receiving aquatic systems. Heavy metals including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of particular concern in such runoff due to their prevalence, toxicity to aquatic organisms and persistence in environment. The ability of commercially available biochar to remove pollutants of concern through column treatments was assessed in this research. Different treatments of biochar were considered and their ability to remove pollutants was compared to soil. The biochar (Emergent and Cantimber) used in this study showed a significant higher molecular weight PAHs removal ability compared to soil and followed the order of Cantimber > Emergent > soil. The effects of heavy metals and PAHs on aquatic organisms and plants degradation can be mitigated by amending the soil media with biochar in the bioretention cells such as raingarden. This could be applied in real world where stormwater runoff can be treated before entering into river or stream therefore cutting the need of future restoration., Emergent Biochar, Cantimber Biochar, Parking lot stormwater, Low impact development, Heavy metals, PAHs, Constructed wetlands
In agricultural landscapes, hedgerows provide critical habitat for songbirds. Himalayan Blackberry (Rubus armeniacus; HBB) is a widespread invasive species in the Pacific Northwest that has been linked to lower breeding songbird diversity. My study explored two possible explanatory mechanisms: educed structural complexity and lower arthropod abundance as a food source. I conducted avian point counts in 51 hedgerow segments at two locations in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. In these segments, I quantified vegetation structure using a Foliage Height Diversity (FHD) metric derived from LiDAR data. I sampled arthropod abundance on the foliage of woody understory vegetation. I used multiple regression to identify best fit generalized linear models. Songbird diversity decreased with HBB % cover and increased with FHD. However, arthropod abundance was unrelated to bird metrics, and similar between HBB and other native shrubs. This suggests that hedgerows should be managed to control HBB and maximize vegetation structure., songbird diversity, agricultural landscapes, Himalayan Blackberry, hedgerows, arthropods, LiDAR
Bioremediation has gained traction for its sustainable principles. Although, advancements in effectiveness are still needed to enable widespread application. This research has two major components. First, priming fungi could prove to be a useful tool to increase efficiency of white-rot fungi when used to bioremediate petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil. This study evaluated T. versicolor colonized in two substrates to test this theory. TPH was extracted from the soils using hexane shaking method, and measured on a CG-MS. The study results were not conclusive, and more research should be conducted to determine if priming white-rot fungi can increase the effectiveness of degradation of TPH in contaminated soils. Second, historical and unethical oil production in Ecuador has left an environmental and human health disaster. The goal of this study was to produce a high-level bioremediation plan that can be used and amended for site specific applications in Ecuador.