Dikes and culverts have limited access to off-channel rearing habitats important to juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhyncus kisutch). This study assessed the success of a floodplain reconnection project in Squamish, BC, at providing rearing habitats. Recommendations on restoration priorities within the area were also provided. A single-season, multi-scale occupancy model was used to estimate the probability of occurrence and detection of juvenile coho during the summer. Regression models were used to assess water and habitat quality and identify relationships with juvenile coho metrics. Culverts were also scored for fish passage. The results of this study indicate that the reconnection project was overall successful. Coho non-detections occurred in areas with poor dissolved oxygen and culvert passage issues. Restoration actions should focus on improving water quality in these areas, and protection of areas of high CPUE. Positive relationships between stream productivity and coho metrics indicates the importance of future studies on macroinvertebrate supply., coho salmon, escape cover, rearing habitat, floodplain reconnection, urban channels, Mamquam River
Since the 1980s, at least 160 ha of marsh vegetation has died off in Sturgeon Bank and Westham Island, located within the Fraser River Estuary. Proposed causes for this marsh recession include sediment deficit, relative sea-level rise, increased salinity, and goose herbivory. At Westham Island, the loss of tidal marsh vegetation is locally distinct in that it occurs in a closed polygon shape versus along the leading edge of the marsh, suggesting that goose herbivory is a principal cause. Goose herbivory on tidal marsh vegetation has become a global problem as many geese populations are becoming hyperabundant. In the Fraser River Estuary, Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and snow goose (Anser caerulescens) numbers have been increasing exponentially. I conducted a field experiment, testing two novel goose herbivory deterrents at Westham Island’s foreshore tidal marsh: metal and snow fencing placed flat against the substrate. I used a randomized complete block design with six replicates and three treatments: metal fencing, snow fencing
and control (no fencing). Each treatment's effectiveness was assessed by monitoring changes in common three-square bulrush (Schoenoplectus pungens) every two weeks throughout the summer season (June-September 2022) in terms of stem density, percent cover, and percent of stems grazed. Results indicated that there was no difference in stem density, percent cover, and percent of stems grazed between the two fencing types. However, compared to bulrush in the controls, both snow and metal fencing treatments yielded a higher stem density and percent cover (x̄% difference = 82.9%, 53.1%, respectively) as well as a lower percent of stems grazed. These results suggest that both fencing materials are equally effective at deterring goose herbivory in a tidal marsh. Additional assessments are needed to clarify whether this technique can be scaled up to promote marsh recovery throughout the entire area of recession., tidal marsh recession, goose herbivory deterrents, goose management, Canada geese, common three-square bulrush, snow fencing, chain-link fencing
The Salish Sea is critical habitat for several whale species including the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Boundary Pass is part of the Salish Sea and connects the Pacific Ocean to several commercial shipping ports in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America. Since 1997, the number of Humpback whales continues to increase in this area, meanwhile the number of vessels is also increasing such that Boundary Pass is among the busiest shipping routes in the region. This high vessel traffic in the area leads to acoustic disturbances that degrades whale foraging opportunities for humpback whales. Commercial vessels transporting goods through whale habitat causes an increased risk of vessel collisions with humpback whales. Humpback-whale movements in Boundary Pass was recorded through systematic scan surveys conduction from a vantage point between June and August. Whale occupancy was compared to oceanographic variables and vessel presence. We found humpback whales were most likely to be present during ebb tides of speeds of -2 m/s under the influence of low tides and also whales were active in areas overlap with shipping lane in the area. Based on our founding in the area about humpback whale connection with biophysical properties of region I hypothesized that whale distribution in area and it relation to low tide and ebb current is most probably under the influence of food abundance in those periods of time. This study concludes with policy recommendations for improving humpback whale foraging grounds by reducing acoustic harassment and risk of ship strikes in the Boundary Pass., Humpback whale, movements, oceanographic variables, Boundary pass, Salish sea, Vessel strike, tide, currents, SST, salinity
A bog is a type of wetland with a high water table, acidic soil and is nutrient poor. Camosun Bog is the oldest bog in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, and remained undisturbed until development of the surrounding residential neighborhood caused changes to its groundwater conditions, threatening its current persistence. The goal of this study is to provide an updated examination of Camosun Bog’s groundwater conditions and to discuss relevant bog restoration measures. Groundwater elevation and chemistry (pH, conductivity, nitrogen and phosphorus) were monitored for several months in 2019. Results indicate that current groundwater elevations are lower in Camosun Bog than they were thirty years ago, especially in the north and northeast regions. Locations in the north and center parts of the open bog experienced groundwater nitrogen enrichment and higher pH, indicating that raising the water table should be the main goal of restoration for Camosun Bog.
Bog wetlands store a disproportionate amount of carbon for their size, making their conservation an important part of climate change mitigation. The goal of this project is to investigate how roads and agriculture impact the hydrology and vegetation composition of Langley Bog and to provide restoration recommendations. Langley Bog, in Langley Township, BC, is a formerly mined peatland with a fill road running through the center and surrounded to the north and west by cranberry farms. From November 2020 to November 2021, depth to water table and pH were measured monthly at nine wells. Twelve vegetation transects were completed in July 2021. Sites adjacent to the road were correlated with a decrease in summer water level, while sites adjacent to the cranberry farms were correlated with an increase in spring pH levels. A positive relationship was found between an increase in water-table level and percent cover of wetland obligate species. Roads may be lowering the water table through subsidence and drainage. The cranberry farms may be increasing the pH through the deposition of fertilizer. These impacts may have been exacerbated by the unusually dry 2021 summer season.
To raise the water table, tree and road removal is recommended to restore lateral flow and decrease evapotranspiration. Culverts installed under the primary fill road will provide additional hydrologic connectivity. Building a berm at outlet points will also help prevent water loss, keeping a higher water table. To increase carbon sequestration, Sphagnum mosses are to be reintroduced to denuded areas in Langley Bog. Tree removal will help in moss establishment by maintaining open bog conditions free from shading. Existing rare ecosystems present in Langley Bog would benefit from the removal of point source pollutants and invasive species on the site. Given the urgency of climate change, restoring the functionality of Langley Bog and protecting the existing stored carbon is a practical and achievable way to move Metro Vancouver a step closer to carbon neutrality., peatlands, ecological restoration, water levels, pH, sphagnum
Stormwater runoff from parking lots often contains a variety of elements and compounds in different forms and concentration that may pose risks to biota in receiving aquatic systems. Heavy metals including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of particular concern in such runoff due to their prevalence, toxicity to aquatic organisms and persistence in environment. The ability of commercially available biochar to remove pollutants of concern through column treatments was assessed in this research. Different treatments of biochar were considered and their ability to remove pollutants was compared to soil. The biochar (Emergent and Cantimber) used in this study showed a significant higher molecular weight PAHs removal ability compared to soil and followed the order of Cantimber > Emergent > soil. The effects of heavy metals and PAHs on aquatic organisms and plants degradation can be mitigated by amending the soil media with biochar in the bioretention cells such as raingarden. This could be applied in real world where stormwater runoff can be treated before entering into river or stream therefore cutting the need of future restoration., Emergent Biochar, Cantimber Biochar, Parking lot stormwater, Low impact development, Heavy metals, PAHs, Constructed wetlands
Coastal wetlands are naturally resilient to changing sea levels; however, as rates of sea-level rise increase, the interaction between changing sea-level and ongoing human impacts will be a major driver in future coastal tidal marsh stability. My goal is to provide decision makers with recommendations to increase the resilience of the Fraser River delta front tidal marsh communities over the twenty-first century. I conducted a literature review to (1) examine the current knowledge base regarding effects of sea-level rise on tidal marshes and (2) identify current ecosystem-based adaptation strategies for increasing tidal marsh resilience to sea-level rise. Based on this review, recommendations are made for strategies that could be used to increase tidal marsh resilience in the Fraser River delta. Recommendations include (1) initiating delta-wide marsh accretion modeling to assess tidal marsh vulnerability under possible sea-level rise scenarios and (2) implementing sediment augmentation pilot projects for both direct (e.g., layered sediment lifts) and indirect (e.g., mud motor) sediment augmentation strategies to test ecosystem based adaptive management strategies as part of an adaptive management framework.
Forestry in British Columbia’s old-growth forests has reduced critical foraging and breeding habitat for the coastal northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis laingi) and restricted population growth. Now at-risk, efforts to recover this subspecies have focused on establishing suitable habitat and a well-distributed population within the province. However, regional diets and associated dynamics are also critical to goshawk recovery and remain poorly understood. Including a synchronous predator-prey recovery approach to current plans can bridge these knowledge gaps. A new model and methods were developed to translate prey biological requirements into structural surrogate features that could be parameterized and ranked within GIS software. Applying these ranks to known goshawk territories in the South Coast allowed for the visualization and quantification of areas with subpar predicted prey abundances. This provided insight on links between prey and forest structure and can be used to direct future restoration and research decisions for coastal goshawk prey-based recovery.
Restoration of salmonid habitat has been completed in many urban areas; however, the success of these projects may be limited without consideration of water quality. Urban watersheds are affected by stormwater runoff which transfers toxic substances such as heavy metals, hydrocarbons, and fine particles from impervious surfaces into streams. Previous research has documented impacts of stormwater causing premature death in spawning coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and related extent of impervious surfaces to impacts on benthic invertebrates. This research aims to expand our knowledge on the effects of stormwater runoff on water quality and benthic invertebrate communities, and
make recommendations for restoration of Mosquito Creek, in North Vancouver, British Columbia. Stream water quality was monitored, site habitats were assessed, and impervious surfaces were mapped. Benthic invertebrate samples were collected and analyzed for abundance, diversity, and pollution tolerance, comparing upstream and downstream of a stormwater inflow and two sites on a reference stream. Average water quality measurements showed minor impacts related to elevated temperatures. However, benthic invertebrate metrics revealed chronic water quality issues, reflecting cumulative impacts. Pollution tolerance index and abundance were reduced at the downstream Mosquito Creek site suggesting impacts from the stormwater inflow, while the Ephemoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT) to total ratio and overall stream health
(Streamkeepers Site Assessment Rating) were significantly lower at Mosquito Creek overall suggesting watershed impacts from impervious surfaces and point-source pollution events. Restoration recommendations including a rain garden are discussed to improve water quality for salmonids., Restoration, Urban streams, Salmonids, Benthic invertebrates, Water quality, Stormwater
Forestry practices are thought to be the major cause of degraded salmonid habitat and declining steelhead populations in the Oktwanch River on Vancouver Island. Large woody debris installations and channel modifications were completed in Reach 1 of the Oktwanch River and adjacent side channels in 2001 to provide spawning and rearing habitat for multiple salmonid species and prevent further degradation, but were ultimately unsuccessful. This study investigated if watershed-scale restoration, rather than reach-scale, is necessary to restore this habitat for steelhead in the Oktwanch River indefinitely. This was achieved through an assessment of fish habitat in Reach 1 of the Oktwanch River and adjacent side channels and spatial analysis of the Oktwanch watershed using Landsat historical aerial imagery and i-Tree Canopy. The findings from this study suggest watershed-scale changes to forestry practices are required to restore steelhead populations in the Oktwanch River., forestry practices, watershed-scale restoration, reach-scale, woody debris installations, channel modifications
Old field is a unnatural habitat that usually occurs as a result of agricultural land abandonment and is the product of early-stage natural succession on a previously managed field. In an agricultural setting with monoculture crops, old fields provide more vegetative complexity through ground cover diversity and shrubs and hedgerows. In Delta, British Columbia, several old-field sites are managed for wildlife and provide nesting habitat for songbirds over the summer, as well as foraging habitat for overwintering raptors during fall and winter months. I surveyed two old-field sites near Boundary Bay, and two field sites at the Vancouver Landfill to compare the influence of old-field vegetation on different bird communities and improve understanding on species using the landfill. I conducted fixed-radius point counts for songbirds, and standing counts for raptors. Comparing replicate field types (n=2) I found that overall diversity of songbirds was higher in old field, and also associated with structural features like shrubs and trees, while abundances of Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) decreased with proximity to shrubs and trees. My results support the conclusion that installing structural vegetation features at the landfill would maximize breeding songbird diversity. I also found the landfill to support higher diversity of wintering raptor species, but old field supported consistently higher abundances. This suggests that the landfill is currently functioning as lower quality wintering habitat, and that different management techniques should be considered.
Bioremediation has gained traction for its sustainable principles. Although, advancements in effectiveness are still needed to enable widespread application. This research has two major components. First, priming fungi could prove to be a useful tool to increase efficiency of white-rot fungi when used to bioremediate petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil. This study evaluated T. versicolor colonized in two substrates to test this theory. TPH was extracted from the soils using hexane shaking method, and measured on a CG-MS. The study results were not conclusive, and more research should be conducted to determine if priming white-rot fungi can increase the effectiveness of degradation of TPH in contaminated soils. Second, historical and unethical oil production in Ecuador has left an environmental and human health disaster. The goal of this study was to produce a high-level bioremediation plan that can be used and amended for site specific applications in Ecuador.