Master of Science in Ecological Restoration Applied Research Projects | BCIT Institutional Repository

Master of Science in Ecological Restoration Applied Research Projects

Alaksen National Wildlife Area: Reservoir suitability for the introduction of the endangered Western Painted Turtle
Alaksen National Wildlife Area located in Delta, BC is home to freshwater species in the former tidal marsh. The current agricultural landscape has left a legacy of high concentrations of heavy metals, trace amounts of organochlorine pesticides, and excess nutrients within the sediments and water of the brackish Fuller and Ewen Reservoirs. Arsenic and phosphorous exceeded Canadian water quality guidelines, while arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, and phosphorus exceeded sediment quality guidelines. There were trace pesticides known to be endocrine disrupters detected in the water and sediment, and combined low level toxicity effects are a concern. A preliminary ecological risk assessment on the metals was completed and the results indicate that there is a possibility of adverse effects for benthic invertebrates, but negligible risk for endangered Western Painted Turtles. However, compounding all the ecosystem stressors along with rising sea levels leads ANWA not an ideal place to introduce this species., © Darian Weber, 2019. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright heron may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems – without written permission of the author., Western Painted turtles, ecotoxicology, risk assessment, agricultural reservoir, heavy metal, endocrine disruptors
Ecocultural restoration of a Coastal Root Garden on Tl’chés (Chatham Island), B.C.
Tl’chés is the Lekwungen name for the Chatham Islands — an archipelago located southeast of Victoria, British Columbia. Tl’chés is a central place in the traditional territory of the Lekwungen peoples, and today it is reserve land of the Songhees First Nation. This landscape was traditionally managed by prescribed burning and the cultivation of native plants. However, in the early 1950's, Lekwungen peoples left the archipelago, due to a lack of potable water and since then, the landscape has degraded drastically. The introduction of non-native plants has resulted in threats to the ecological, cultural resilience, and diversity of the landscape. My research focuses on developing a restoration plan for springbank clover in the coastal root garden. My restoration approach focuses on incorporating a Songhees-informed approach to restoration by integrating past practices and knowledge with the aim of answering: how to best restore the springbank clover population on Tl’chés?, Eco-cultural restoration, coastal root gardens, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), Songhees First Nation, cultural keystone place (CPK)
The effects of tree thinning and broadcast burning on the quality of ungulate winter range: a case study within a Southern Interior Forest in British Columbia
Food limitation on ungulate winter range (UWR) has been a suspected factor in the regional declines of Odocoileus hemionus (mule deer) in the Pacific Northwest. Accordingly, enhancing browse resources in this critical habitat is increasingly recommended. At a dry forest site in Southeast B.C. called Fiva Creek (IDF dm1), I investigated the effects of two commonly prescribed methods for enhancing browse production: tree thinning and prescribed burning. Treatments were implemented between 2005–2008 and included three levels of thinning (all burned) and control areas (uncut and unburned). The response variables I measured included browse cover, canopy closure, security cover, visibility, and pellet abundance. I also evaluated browsing pressure on the indicator plant, Saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia). Using linear mixed-effects ANOVA tests, I assessed how thinning (with follow-up burning) influenced forest and vegetation properties. There was no evidence of a treatment effect on browse production; however, browsing pressure was very high across the site (i.e., > 80% of A. alnifolia twigs showed evidence of browsing). Additionally, canopy cover was below recommended levels in all thinned treatments. My results suggested that restoration treatments actually diminished the quality of UWR at Fiva Creek. Further investigations are needed to develop effective UWR restoration methods., Mule deer, ungulate winter range, thinning, prescribed fire, restoration ecology
Restoring a culturally eutrophic shallow lake: Case study on Quamichan Lake in North Cowichan, British Columbia
Quamichan Lake is a culturally eutrophic shallow lake located in North Cowichan on Vancouver Island in British Columbia. My research project examined the current trophic status and water quality of Quamichan Lake and investigated a number of watershed and in-lake restoration methods to return the lake back to mesotrophic (nutrient rich) conditions. Based on the data collected, Quamichan Lake is currently in a hypertrophic state caused by excess phosphorus inputs that leads to Cyanophyte phytoplankton species (cyanobacteria) to dominate during the summer. Eutrophication is both an environmental and human health issue as cyanobacteria algal blooms can disrupt the lake ecology and are toxic to most mammals. The goal of my research was to provide the Municipality of North Cowichan and Vancouver Island Health Authority with a comprehensive restoration plan to contribute to the restoration of Quamichan Lake and other lakes in southern Vancouver Island that are experiencing cultural eutrophication., © Kathleen E Moore, 2019. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright heron may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems – without written permission of the author., Eutrophication, Limnology, Watershed Management, Cyanobacteria, Restoration
Restoring hydro-impacted wetlands for secretive marsh birds
Secretive marsh birds can be difficult to detect and are dependent on wetlands, leaving them vulnerable to wetland loss or alteration. This study examines the influence of management-altered hydrological regimes on five secretive marsh bird species in the West Kootenay and Columbia Wetlands in British Columbia, Canada. Focal species occupied wetlands with less frequently altered hydrological regimes more often and in greater numbers. Occupancy models suggested that woody vegetation, tall vegetation, and open water are important drivers of occupancy for these species. Wetlands most frequently experiencing heavily altered hydrological regimes had more open water and less tall vegetation, both of which were negatively associated with wetland occupancy. Water management operations may be promoting altered vegetation communities within these wetlands, in turn promoting lower occupancy of secretive marsh bird species. Restoration recommendations include: prioritizing lower elevation wetlands, limiting woody vegetation encroachment, and experimentally restoring the hydrological regime of affected wetlands., © Ashleigh M. Westphal 2019. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright heron may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems – without written permission of the author., secretive marsh bird, Kootenays, British Columbia, hydro, water management, wetlands
Splendor without spoil: restoring tidal channel habitat on Swishwash Island
Restoration of estuarine and tidal marsh habitats in Canada’s Fraser River estuary is imperative for the conservation and recovery of select depressed Pacific salmon populations and the many species that depend on them. In the 1930’s through to 1940’s, dredge spoils were deposited on East Swishwash Island, permanently altering the small delta island’s geomorphology and ecology. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1.) Confirm and describe fish use of remnant tidal channel habitat on Swishwash Island, using juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) as a focal species and 2.) Quantify the historical tidal channel loss on East Swishwash Island and potential for restoration. Tidal channels and adjacent marshes were sampled for realized fish use, plant distributions, basic water parameters, and large woody debris (potential predator refugia). Remote data sets (historical and present-day) were used to quantify historic, current, and future tidal channel density scenarios. Swishwash tidal channels were utilized during the sampling period by Chinook salmon with comparable relative abundances and fork lengths. Tidal channel capacity and marsh habitat have been reduced by 50% on East Swishwash Island due to spoil deposition and marsh erosion. Based on reference conditions derived from undisturbed and historic marsh islands, restoring island elevations could facilitate the addition of 1 km of marsh edge while increasing tidal channel area on East Swishwash Island by nearly 200%. This would provide important habitat in a fragmented distributary of the Fraser River estuary to species of fish and wildlife, including 3 ecotypes of juvenile Chinook salmon., © Kyle Armstrong, 2019. All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright heron may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems – without written permission of the author., Estuaries, Chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, rearing, restoration, mitigation, tidal channels