Background: Tattoo is a form of body modification that involves injecting ink underneath the epidermis using a needle. According to BC’s Guidelines for Personal Services Establishments this kind of invasive procedure will require wound dressing but the kind and sterility of the wound dressing has not been specified. During a tattoo convention an Environmental Health Officer (EHO) noticed that some tattoo artists were using absorbent pads for wound dressing. Absorbent pads are not sterile; therefore there is a concern of microbial infections at the tattoo wounds. This study examined the viability of using absorbent pads, which are non-sterile, as tattoo wound dressings.
Method: 3M Quick Swabs were used to swab absorbent pads to collect the microorganisms present on the surface. 3M Petrifilm E. coli/Coliform Count Plates were used to culture E. coli and Coliform which could be present on the SanidermTM sterile tattoo dressing and absorbent pads. The presence of E. coli colonies on the petrifilm would show up as blue dots, while coliform colonies would be red dots. The total colony forming units (CFU), which include both E. coli and coliform colonies, were counted to assess the general sanitation conditions of both types of dressing.
Results: Zero CFU were found from sampling the SanidermTM dressings and absorbent pads purchased from tattoo supply shops within Metro Vancouver.
Conclusions: In the field of Environmental Health, coliform is often used as an indicator for the degree of sanitary quality; while E. coli is used as an indicator for fecal contamination. Therefore, the results of this study, indicated that the absorbent pads have high degree sanitation and are free from fecal contamination., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2017., Peer reviewed, Absorbent pads, Meat pads, Tattoo, Dressing, Wound dressing, Sterile dressing
Background: The purpose of this study was to look at infection control and sterilization procedures in relation to invasive services performed at Personal Service Establishments (PSEs) in British Columbia. The objective was to collect data on the opinions of regulation and infection control practices of persons currently working in the industries of: tattooing, micro-blading and permanent make-up.
Method: Data was collected from a survey that was created and distributed online through Survey Monkey. A list of 261 personal service establishments throughout Vancouver Costal Health and Fraser Health were called and/or e-mailed and asked to participate in the online survey.
Results and Analyses: Among the 261 PSEs contacted, 30 agreed to participate. They were asked about the regulation of their profession and their standard practices for infection control and sterilization. 3% of the respondent’s primary service was permanent make-up, 7% micro-blading, 7% piercing and 80% was tattooing. The majority of opinions on regulation were divided where 50% felt the industry was under regulated and 40% felt it was adequately regulated. 90% of the respondents agreed that formal training should be required before being allowed to tattoo and 43% of the respondents also agreed that the use of an autoclave should require certification. For infection control/sterilization procedures 100% of shops use one-time use (disposable) needles and ink caps, 80% use disposable tubes, 93% use cord and machine covers and 90% use disposable razors. 63% of the respondents do not use autoclaves because they use disposable items and therefore do not need to clean and sterilize re-usable equipment. The data compared in chi-squared analysis, age and formal training had a p-value of 0.01460 which indicates that there is an association between age and the belief that formal training should be required for those who practice tattooing. Those under 40 were more likely to indicate that formal training should be required.
Conclusion: With a low response rate for micro-blading and permanent make-up it is not feasible to compare or contrast opinions and/or practices between the three services. The tattooing industry had the highest response rate and can be looked at in more detail. The information collected on tattooing could be used to develop a course to improve the safety of PSE’s. EHO knowledge in inspecting food service establishments is very high as a system has been put into place that ensures effective inspections. As well, the FOODSAFE program teaches safe practices to those who work in the kitchen. The growing popularity of PSEs now gives EHOs the opportunity to focus on creating safe work environments through the implementation of a training course and possibly altering the way inspections of each different PSE are conducted. Results of this study, along with other Canadian published data, should be considered when developing standardized training and education in the industry where invasive procedures are used., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2017., Peer reviewed, Tattoo, Tattooing, Tattoos, Sterilization, Infection control, Regulations