Background: Childcare facilities (CCFs) are known to have a high potential risk of exposure and transmission of infectious diseases through contact surfaces, such as toys. Research to date suggests that toys are a potential source of cross-infections in CCFs, especially when childcare providers do not practice proper hygiene. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge on the differences in sanitation methods of toys between group and family CCFs. This study compared knowledge of group and family CCFs regarding how to sanitize toys.
Methods: Self-administered surveys were distributed to group and family CCFs in Surrey, BC via e-mail. The survey was used to assess the knowledge of childcare providers on sanitation of toys. The survey was evaluated using a scoring system. In addition, each participant answered descriptive questions, such as the existence of sanitation plans and toy cleaning and sanitizing schedules.
Results: Group and family CCFs showed no statistically significant differences in knowledge levels on sanitation of toys. The mean score of the knowledge level of group and family CCFs was 65% and 55% respectively.
Conclusion: Childcare providers in CCFs play a key role in properly sanitizing toys and preventing transmission of infectious diseases between children. Recognizing knowledge gaps in sanitation can lead to policy development as well as improved educational programs., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2017., Peer reviewed, Childcare, Group, Family, Children, Toys, Sanitation, Public health, Knowledge
Background: Young children in child care facilities are more likely to contract communicable diseases than if they are cared for at home. The relationship between pathogen presence and frequency of toy sanitation at these facilities is not well studied. Thus, the discrepancies currently seen in the hygiene guidelines between health authorities in British Columbia, Canada. Most childcare facility studies in the current literature focus on gastrointestinal outbreak situations or the sanitation of multiple surfaces. The focus of this project is on toys only. Toys made out of wood were selected because research shows that this material is more susceptible to harboring bacteria on it. Microbiological swabbing was performed to measure the effectiveness of the sanitation schedule of a child care facility in Burnaby.
Method: Twenty-four wooden blocks were randomly selected for surface sampling. The 3M™ Quick Swabs were used to collect the bacterial coliforms before and after sanitizing the blocks, whereas, the 3M™ Petrifilm™ E. coli/Coliform Count Plates were used to enumerate the bacteria. The last time the facility had cleaned the blocks was 1.5 weeks prior to sampling.
Results: There were 0 CFU/cm2 for before and after sanitizing the blocks, therefore, the mean difference was also 0 CFU/cm2. Inferential statistics could not be conducted.
Conclusion: The results can be interpreted several ways. One interpretation is that the current toy sanitation frequency at the facility is good. It could also mean that, the methodology used was not able to detect any coliforms. In combination with the conclusions from the different studies discussed in the evidence review, the development of a prescriptive toy sanitation schedule for child care facilities would not be a high priority for health authorities., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2017., Peer reviewed, Child care facility, Sanitation, Frequency, Colony-forming unit (CFU), Coliforms, E. coli gastroenteritis
Background: Mobi is a bike-sharing program in Vancouver, BC that provides helmets for use with each bike. There is little research documenting risks associated with helmet-sharing, but an evidence review has shown that there is the potential for transmission of diseases that are known or presumed to be transmitted via fomites. This study attempted to ascertain public opinion of helmet-sharing and whether concern over the cleanliness of shared helmets affected likelihood of wearing them.
Method: A survey was conducted to determine if there is a relationship between concern with helmet cleanliness and likelihood of wearing shared helmets. The researcher conducted surveys in-person at randomly chosen Mobi docking stations. An online (SurveyMonkey) survey was also distributed using Facebook, Twitter, Reddit and email.
Results: Chi-square tests performed using NCSS determined that there was a statistically significant association between helmet use on personal bikes and use of Mobi helmet when riding Mobi bikes (p=0.00029). There was also an association between whether users found cleanliness the most important factor in their decision to wear the Mobi helmet (of cleanliness, aesthetics, legal requirement, safety and comfort/fit) and likelihood of wearing the Mobi helmet (p=0.02038). There was no association found between level of concern for cleanliness of the helmet and likelihood of wearing it (p=0.54995).
Conclusions: Based on the results, there is an association between concern with the cleanliness of shared helmets are and how likely users are to wear them. Users that were most concerned about safety were more likely to use the Mobi helmet during every ride. Those that were most concerned about cleanliness were least likely to wear the Mobi helmet. However, this study also concluded that some users chose not to wear the provided helmets for reasons other than concern for cleanliness. Further research is required to determine how this will affect the health and safety of Mobi Bike users., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2017., Peer reviewed, Helmet, Bike-share, Helmet-share, Bicycle