Environmental Public Health Journal 2015 | BCIT Institutional Repository

Environmental Public Health Journal 2015

Pages

Accuracy of swimming pool test kits
Background: Pool Chemistry is important to allow those using it to feel comfortable through pool water being physically clean and biologically safe. Operators and health inspectors use test kits to ensure that pool water chemistry is correct and will not cause irritation or problems to both the patrons and the pool recirculation system. This study investigates the accuracy of the three commonly used pool test kits available in the market (Taylor, HACH, and ColorQ). Parameters tested are Free Available Chlorine (FAC), Total Chlorine (TC), and pH. Methods: Using artificial pool water with known concentrations of FAC, TC, and pH, 30 samples were taken for the three different parameter from the three test kits. The indicated concentrations and pH on the test kits were then recorded and used to compare with the known standards. Results were analyzed using the statistical software NCSS. One sample t-tests were performed to indicate whether or not the test kit as accurate in reading different parameters of pool chemistry. Results: Taylor Test Kit: Readings for FAC (2.6ppm) showed 2.4ppm, TC (2.7ppm) showed 2.43ppm, and pH (7.1) showed 7.1. HACH Test Kit: Readings for FAC (2.8ppm) showed 3.5ppm, TC (3.0ppm) showed 3.5ppm, and pH (7.1) showed 6.97. ColorQ Test Kit: Readings for FAC (2.7ppm) showed 3.0ppm, TC (3.0ppm) showed 3.0ppm, and pH (7.0) showed 6.96. Conclusion: All three test kits have accurate readings for pH levels. However, the test kits do not provide accurate readings for FAC and TC which would make it difficult to calculate CC in pool waters. Although the FAC and TC readings are inaccurate, they are able to provide operators and health inspectors with brief information regarding pool water chemistry., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2015., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Peer reviewed, Swimming pools, Chlorine, pH, Taylor, ColorQ, HACH, Pool Test Kit
Assessment of sous vide knowledge and inspection/cooking practices
Background: In September 2014, BCCDC developed “Guidelines for Restaurant Sous Vide Cooking Safety in British Columbia” providing Environmental Health Officers (EHO) and sous vide cooking chefs safety knowledge about sous vide cooking. To assess whether the guidelines improved sous vide safety knowledge, a study was conducted to examine and compare knowledge differences between EHOs and chefs who had read the guidelines to those who had not read the guidelines. Methods: An online survey was created and advertised by publishing on the BCCDC website, in newsletters and magazines (Vancouver Costal Health newsletter, Fraser Health news Letter, Chefs Quarterly magazine), and through e-mail distribution lists to EHOs and chefs, including chefs at Vancouver Community College. The questions in this survey were developed based on the guide-lines. T-tests and Chi square analyses were conducted to assess knowledge difference between those who read the guidelines and those who did not. Results: A total of 65 people completed the survey, including 45 EHOs (69.3%), 15 chefs (23%), and 5 others (7.7%). EHOs who read the guidelines had significantly higher average knowledge scores in the multiple choice section of the sous vide safety knowledge survey (p=0.00028, t-test) when compared to EHOs who had never read the guidelines. No differences were found in the true and false section (p=0.43925, t-test). With regard to inspection practices, EHO who read the guide-lines were more likely to frequently check for the internal temperature of sous vide foods, water bath temperature, time/temperature in the recipes, calibration of thermometer and proper labels on sous vide pouched foods than EHOs who never read the guidelines. Chefs who read the guidelines had similar average score as chefs who never read the guidelines in T/F (p=0.79878, t-test) and multiple choice (p=0.97, t-test). With regard to cooking practice, chefs who read the guidelines were more likely to frequently calibrate thermometers than chefs who never read the guidelines. However, chefs who never read the guidelines were more likely to frequently find their sous vide pouch floating dur-ing the cooking process, to check for internal temperature of sous vide food, and to label their sous vide pouch properly. Conclusion: These results show that EHOs who have read the sous vide guidelines have better sous vide knowledge in comparison to EHOs who have never read the guidelines. They are also more likely to have overall better inspection practices. Nevertheless, results show chefs who read the guidelines have similar sous vide knowledge in comparison to chefs who never read the guidelines. In terms of cooking practices, these chefs are likely to have better cooking practices only in certain areas., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2015., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Peer reviewed, Survey, Sous vide, Guideline, Inspection/cooking practices
Comparing carbon dioxide levels within urban transport microenvironments during rush hour and non-rush traffic
Introduction: Commuters spend countless hours within tightly confined spaces with limited ventilation that may be filled with many contaminants. By analyzing if there is a significant difference between levels of carbon dioxide between rush and non-rush hour conditions, it can be determined if some commuters are subjected to poorer levels of air quality during certain times of the day. Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to understand whether there are significant ventilation deficiencies during rush compared to non-rush hour times in urban transport microenvironments. Methods: Analysis of urban transport microenvironments was done using the TSI brand QTrak Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Monitor to gather data on carbon dioxide at 1-minute intervals on the 99 B-line express bus that runs between Broadway and Commercial Skytrain Station and the Broadway and Cambie Street Skytrain Station. Results: A one tailed T-test was done on the NCSS 9 statistical software to compare if rush hour urban microenvironments had significantly higher concentrations of carbon dioxide than when compared to non-rush hour. Statistical analysis determined that since the P-value was well above the alpha level of 0.05 (i.e. P<0.05), it gives reason to accept the null hypothesis, which states that rush hour concentrations were not higher than non-rush hour. Conclusion: Statistical analysis determined that the overall concentrations of carbon dioxide during rush hour were not significantly higher than non-rush hour times. This result may have been attributed to conditions and factors during data collection that could not be controlled by the researcher. Due to the length of the route, exposure times were found to be within time-weighted averages as set out by the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), though it was still not within the recommended limit of 1000 ppm as set out by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning (ASHRAE)., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2015., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Peer reviewed, Carbon dioxide, CO2, TSI Q-Trak, Indoor Air, Indoor Air Quality, Buses, Bus, 99 B-line, Commercial- Broadway, Cambie-Broadway;, Urban Transport Microenvironments, Rush hour, Non-rush hour
Consumers knowledge regarding pesticides on apples and effective washing to remove the pesticides
Objectives: With the increased health awareness, there is a growing demand of fresh produce in food. Not only is there a possibility of the fresh produce to be contaminated with harmful micro-organisms, but also chemicals such as pesticides that have harmful adverse effects. The effective method of washing the fruit can reduce the level of pesticide residue to a significant amount. The objective of the study is to determine if the general public is aware of washing the produce properly and if knowledge, age, gender, education or concerns have any association with the effectiveness of washing. Methods: The study was done using a survey that was designed using Google Forms. An online survey which was self-administered was sent out using snowball sampling. The survey was publicized through both email and social media Facebook. The survey had 19 questions in total 11 of which were general and 8 were knowledge based. The results were analysed by Chi-square test using NCSS Software Package. Results: It was found that there is a statistically significant association between knowledge level and effective method of washing the apples with a p-value of 0.00082. This means H0 is rejected; hence it means there is an associative between knowledge level and effectively washing the apples. No other demographic factors (age, gender, education, concerns, or having children) were found to be associated with the method of washing the produce effectively. Conclusion: It was found through the study that the people who were aware and had good knowledge about the presence of chemicals (pesticides) on apples would wash their fruit (apples) effectively enough that will reduce the pesticide residue on fruits more than people who aren’t aware of the pesticides on fruits. Other factors such as age, gender, preference for the type of food were not found to have any association with washing of the fruit effectively or higher level of knowledge., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2015., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Peer reviewed, Apples, Washing, Pesticides, Knowledge
Contrasting the effectiveness of chloramines reduction in indoor swimming pools disinfected by ozone versus UV
Objectives: Chloramines are disinfection by-products that are produced between chlorine and contaminants in the pool. Exposures to chloramines at high levels or for extended durations have been found to cause mucous membrane irritations and respiratory distress in humans. To reduce chloramines production, secondary treatment in the form of UV and ozone are used in newer indoor swimming pools. This study aimed to examine whether there is a difference between UV and ozone treatment in their effectiveness in reducing chloramines in indoor pools. Killarney leisure pool and whirlpool, which utilized ozone treatment, as well as Hillcrest leisure pool and whirlpool, which utilized UV treatment, were studied. Methods: Hach Pocket Colorimeter 2 Analysis System which used a DPD method of analysis was used to determine concentrations of free chlorine and total chlorines. Concentrations of chloramines were calculated by subtracting the concentration of free chlorine from total chlorine. Thirty pool water samples for each type of pool system were analyzed on random days in the afternoons of January and February, 2015. A two sample t-test was used to compare the chloramines concentrations of the whirlpools; while a Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the chloramines concentrations of the leisure pools. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the mean chloramines concentration of the UV-treated whirlpool and that of the ozone-treated whirlpool (p = 0.00854). However, there was not a statistically significant difference between the mean chloramines concentration between the UV treated leisure pool and that of the ozone treated leisure pool (p = 0.882048). Conclusions: It was determined that UV was more effective than ozone in reducing chloramines concentrations in indoor public whirlpools. Therefore, in order to choose a treatment that leads to the greatest reduction of health hazard posed to pool patrons, UV is preferred. Whirlpools that intend to adopt secondary treatment may consider UV., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2015., Peer reviewed, Indoor swimming pool, Chloramines, UV, Ozone
Disinfection efficacy studies on three different disinfection methods in health care facilities by ATP method
Objectives: Nosocomial infection has always been a significant topic in the field of public health. The disinfection procedures involved in health care facilities are extremely important to prevent potential transmission of diseases. Therefore, this study was performed to compare the disinfection efficacy between three different disinfection methods (Accel wipes, Hubscrub industrial washer, and Steam vapor) on three pieces of non-critical medical equipment: wheelchairs, mattresses and bath chairs. Methods: The method used to evaluate the disinfection efficacy compared the reduction of contaminants count in the relative light unit using ATP monitoring methods. 30 samples of each of the three types of medical equipment were swabbed pre-disinfection and post-disinfection using the three disinfection methods. The recorded reduction number was then converted using log transformation. Statistical analysis was conducted using NCSS to assess differences between the disinfection methods. Results: The mean log-reduction of disinfection for Accel wipes, Hubscrub, and steam vapor were 1.067, 1.490, and 1.485 respectively. Steam vapor and Hubscrub displayed statistically significantly better disinfection efficacy compared to Accel wipes in terms of log reduction (overall p=0.000002). Conclusion: Hubscrub and steam vapor are better disinfectants compared to Accel wipes in terms of mean log reduction values; however, all three disinfection methods demonstrated effectiveness when cleaning and disinfecting non-critical medical equipment. For critical medical equipment, steam vapor and Hubscrub industrial washing are effective while Accel wipes do not meet the standards of high-level disinfection. As a result, combination usages of all three disinfection methods are recommended at health care facilities based on the categories of the medical equipment., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2015., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Peer reviewed, Disinfection efficacy, Medical equipment, Public health, Mean-log reduction, ATP
The effect of Foodsafe Level 1 Training on inspection report results
Abstract: Food handlers equipped with food safety knowledge prevent foodborne illnesses. This study examined the relationship between worker Foodsafe level 1 training and critical violations reported on inspection results of non-chain restaurants in the Burnaby Fraser Health region. A total of 25 food service establishments with no critical violations on their routine inspections and 25 that had at least one critical violation participated in the telephone survey. Using the Mann-Whitney U two tailed t-test, it was shown that food service establishments with no critical violations on inspections had no significantly (p = 0.72) different proportions of Foodsafe level 1 trained staff than those with at least one critical violations on inspections. This study suggested that having more food handlers with food safety training does not impact how well restaurants score on inspections., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2015., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Peer reviewed, Foodsafe, Inspection, Critical, Violations
Effectiveness of mechanically tenderized beef labels on influencing practices of cooking beef in British Columbia
Background: Mechanically tenderized beef poses a higher risk for Escherichia coli 0157:H7 infection than intact beef and has been implicated in several outbreaks. As such, all products are mandated to be labeled in Canada. Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of mechanically tenderized beef labels on influencing practices of cooking beef in British Columbia. Methods: 74 adults within British Columbia who cooked beef were surveyed electronically using a snowball method. An inferential (Pearson chi-square analysis) and descriptive analysis was performed on the nominal data in PSPP and Microsoft Excel respectively. Results: Only 8% of respondents abided with information on mechanically tenderized beef labels. No statistically significant associations were found between practices of abiding with information on mechanically tenderized beef labels and various socio-demographic factors (e.g. age, gender, education level, and food safety education) (p<0.01). The practice of not using food thermometers was the major contributing factor that lowered the effectiveness of mechanically tenderized beef labels. Conclusion: Mechanically tenderized beef labels were ineffective in influencing behaviours of cooking beef in British Columbia. Therefore, other risk communication strategies are needed to persuade adults in British Columbia to adequately cook mechanically tenderized beef products. Recommendations: Future studies can assess whether the general public is properly cooling mechanically tenderized beef as the label does not address this practice., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2015., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Peer reviewed, Mechanically tenderized beef, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Label, Risk communication
The effectiveness of smartphone temperature sensors for ambient temperature monitoring
Background: Heat-related illness during extreme weather events is a leading cause of death and morbidity among vulnerable populations. Heat health alert systems are crucial in preventing serious impacts due to extreme heat, however its efficacy is limited by available atmospheric temperature data. A study was conducted to determine the accuracy of a silicon band-gap sensor integrated into certain models of smartphones when compared to a well-documented thermistor themperature sensor. Methods: Ambient temperature readings were taken at a location chosen within Burnaby, BC, using both a Met One sensor and a Sensirion sensor integrated into a smartphone. The data was then analyzed using a dependent T-test for paired samples to determine whether there was a significant difference between the grouped readings. Results: According to the results of the dependent T-test with data adjusted to a calibration curve, it was determined that there was no difference between the readings taken by the Met One and the Sensirion sensors, t(30)= -0.68, p=0.5 (95% CI, -0.04 to 0.02). Conclusions: Although further research is needed, the results of this study suggest that temperature sensors found in smartphones may be a smaller, lower-cost, and more accessible alternative to some of the higher-end models currently used to measure ambient temperature for the purposes of public health planning and policy-making., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2015., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Peer reviewed, Temperature, Silicon band-gap, Sensor, Heat, Sensirion, Met One, Smartphone, Health
Electronic cigarettes
Background: Since 2011, the popularity of electronic cigarettes in North America has increased dramatically. However, with a lack of scientific data performed on long term health effects and the limited number of short term studies, it is difficult for Environmental Health Officers to effectively educate the public on concerns relating to the health and safety of the general public. The increase of teenage users demonstrates the need for better government legislation and enforcement, in order to prevent the re-glamorization of smoking in younger generations. Therefore, the following study conducted a chemical analysis on artificially inhaled vapor from two different types of e-cigarettes (disposable and rechargeable), to determine if any heavy metal concentrations; specifically cadmium, chromium, lead and arsenic, are detectable. Methods: The vapor from one of two e-cigarette types was artificially inhaled through a cellulose filter cassette by a personal sampling pump. A two tailed t-test was performed to determine if there were any differences between the heavy metals and the type of e-cigarette used in the study. Results: There was no statistical significant difference in heavy metal concentration by the type of e-cigarette used (for cadmium the p-value was 0.00, and power was 0.00, for chromium the p-value was 0.181220, and power was 0.008976342, for lead the p-value was 0.333711, and power was 0.001825742, for arsenic the p-value was 0.00, and power was 0.00). Conclusion: Based on the results, it was determined that there was no statistical significance between disposable e-cigarettes and rechargeable e-cigarettes with respect to concentration of the four heavy metals of interest (eg. cadmium, chromium, lead and arsenic). Although there was no statistical significance between the types of e-cigarettes used, the average concentration of chromium (IV) from the rechargeable e-cigarette was 0.13mg/m3, which is ten times the recommended 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) set by the BC Occupational Health and Safety Regulations. Hence, further studies must be conducted to determine if the average concentration found in this study truly reflects the concentration found in inhaled vapor from rechargeable e-cigarettes. Furthermore, environmental health officers can provide the public with the concentration found in this study and warn of potential health risks associated with e-cigarettes until further studies are released., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2015., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Peer reviewed, Electronic cigarette, Vapor, Disposable, E-cigarette, Rechargeable, Heavy metals, Inhaled, Alternative, Concentration, E-juice, Smoking, Environmental Health Officer
Increased organic contamination found on mobile phones after touching it while using the toilet
Background: Mobile phones are considered as an indispensable handheld item in society today. Frequently used, these devices are a “high-touched” commodity. Previous research has demonstrated that E. coli and other environmental contamination are responsible for the contamination of mobile phones. This study will measure the level of contamination (or sanitation) of mobile phones at an educational institution. Method: The Hygiena MicroSnap Coliform and E. coli Enrichment Swab and the Coliform and E. coli Detection Swabs were used to detect the presence (or absence) of E. coli and total coliforms on subjects’ mobile phones. The Hygiena UltraSnap ATP Surface Test was used to detect levels of ATP. The SystemSURE Plus Luminometer generated readings in RLUs that determined the level of sanitation. In addition, each subject answered two questions regarding their gender and whether or not they have touched their phones while using the toilet within the past week. Results: No presence of E. coli or total coliforms were detected (0 RLUs). A one-tailed paired T-test confirmed that the ATP levels sampled from participants that touched their phones while using the toilet within the past week was statistically significant (P=0.008390). A two-tailed paired T-test confirmed that ATP levels was not statistically significantly different between males and females. Conclusions: Based on the results, touching mobile phones while using the toilet contributes to increased ATP levels found on mobile phones. There were no differences in ATP levels found between males and females. Future studies are required to confirm this., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2015., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Peer reviewed, ATP, E. coli, Mobile phone, Toilet, Cross-contamination, Fecal-oral route, Organic contamination
Inspection violations and community care facilities in British Columbia, Canada
Background: In British Columbia, community care facility is a broad term that covers many different type of facilities including residential care and child care facilities. These facilities are inspected and audited by the BC regional health authorities to ensure that they are operating in compliance with the BC Community Care and Facilities Act and its respective regulations. These facilities house population groups that are at higher risk of injury or illness due to their physiology and behaviour. Therefore, it is crucial that these facilities are operating in compliance with the prescribed legislation to minimize the risk of illness and injury to the users of these facilities. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if there were any differences in the number of violations in residential care and child care facilities between the different health authorities in BC. Methods: Inspection data were randomly selected and extracted from each of BC’s five health authority’s websites and assessed for the number of violations found in these inspections. Violations were tallied and an ANOVA analysis was performed to identify if there were any differences in the number of violations between the health authority regions. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel 2013 and NCSS. There was a statistically significant difference of violations between child care and residential care facilities located in the Interior Health Authority region and Northern Health Authority region. Interior Health Authority child care and residential care facilities have more violations than Northern Health Authority child care and residential care facilities. Conclusion: Violations in child care and residential care facilities varied among the five BC HA region. The IHA facilities were found to have the overall highest number of violations for both child care and residential care facilities whereas the NHA facilities were found to have the lowest number of violations. This suggests that patrons of child/residential care facilities in IHA have a higher potential of getting injured or ill compared to patrons in facilities located in NHA., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2015., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Peer reviewed, Community care licensing facilities, Child care, Licensing officer, Environmental health officer, EHO, LO, Residential care, Inspections, Violations
Investigation on the cold temperature retention capacity of the 1.5 Liter Thermos® double wall vacuum stainless steel thermal container when filled to different volumes and with different types of milk
Introduction: Customers sometimes question the freshness of milk inside thermal containers in coffee shops. Milk that is kept between 4°C to 60°C can support the growth of pathogens, hence it should be kept below 4°C. Thermal containers are often advertised as being able to retain the temperature of their contents for a prolonged period of time. Yet, the extent of their temperature retention capacity is not clearly defined by the manufacturers. This study investigated the effectiveness of the 1.5 Liter Thermos® Double Wall Vacuum Stainless Steel Serving Carafe thermal container in keeping milk at ≤4°C when it was filled to different volumes and with different types of milk over a nine hour period. Methods: Four tests were carried out in this study: The 1.5L Skim Milk, The 1.5L Creamo, The 0.75L Skim Milk and The 0.75L Creamo Test. For each test, the milk was placed into the 1.5L Thermos® Double Wall Vacuum Stainless Steel Serving Carafe with the initial temperature between 3.1°C to 3.4°C. Change in temperature was recorded for nine hours using the Thermocouple data logger. Results: The descriptive data demonstrates that the mean temperatures over the nine-hour period for The 1.5L Skim Milk Test, The 1.5L Creamo Test, The 0.75L Skim Milk Test and The 0.75L Creamo Test were 4.41±0.88°C, 4.51±0.95°C, 5.59±1.52°C and 6.05±1.77°C, respectively. MANOVA results suggested that “volume”, “time”, “type of milk”, “volume and time”, “volume and type of milk”, “time and type of milk”, and “volume, time and type of milk” did have effects on the temperature retention capacity of the thermal container with p-values <0.05. The temperatures of all samples were <4°C at hour zero. All of the samples’ temperatures began to increase once they were inside the thermal container and all of the samples entered the danger zone (>4°C) after four hours. A Chi Square test was conducted to determine whether Creamo or skim milk was safer (≤4°C) from hour one to four. Results showed that 123/240 (51%) skim milk and 110/240 (46%) Creamo samples were safe, but the result was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study’s results indicate that the tested thermal container had a better cold temperature retention capacity when it was filled up (1.5L) compared to when it was only half filled (0.75L). In addition, when the thermal container was filled with skim milk, it also had a better cold temperature retention capacity compared to Creamo. Finally, this specific thermal container was not successful in maintaining the temperature of milk out of the danger zone (≤4°C) after four hours. These results should be disseminated to Environmental Health Officers whose job it is to keep the public safe from foodborne illnesses. As well, policies should be established pertaining to time permitted to keep milk in thermal containers., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2015., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Peer reviewed, Thermos, Thermal container, Milk, Creamo, Coffee, Temperature
Kimchi
Background: The increasing number of kimchi consumers in Metro Vancouver raises food safety concerns over the kimchi being out in the ambient temperature. Although kimchi is known to have lactic acid pro-ducing bacteria as its normal flora, environmental health officers have no specific reference to the change in pH with respect to time. The purpose of this study was to understand the rate at which kimchi ferments at different temperatures and determine whether kimchi is a hazardous food or not. Methods: Freshly made kimchi at researcher’s residence were divided into two groups; 4 oC and 25 oC. 30 samples for each set with equal amounts were left at these two different conditions. PH and temperature were measured at the time of separation and for three weeks weekly using the Waterproof Palm pH analyzer. Results: There was a steeper decline in the 25 oC set compared to 4 oC. It took some time between 22 hours and 34 hours for 25 oC set to show a drop in pH. On the other hand, 4 oC set did not show a significant decline in pH within the time period of the experiment., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2015., Peer reviewed, Kimchi, pH, Waterproof Palm pH analyzer, Fermentation, Acidification
Knowledge translation and the Public Health Inspector
Background: Knowledge translation (KT) is the process of using the best available knowledge to inform decision-making. Public Health Inspectors (PHIs) are tasked with the critical responsibility of protecting public health. However, there is little data available about how effective and consistent current methods of distributing information to professionals across Canada are. The efficacy of KT has implications on the PHI profession and ultimately, public health protection. Objective: The purpose of this research is to identify how PHIs across Canada take evidence and incorporate it into practice. Methods: A survey was created with questions focused on determining what information PHIs use when making public health decisions, how PHIs go about finding the information required, and the level of trust invested into each source of data. Questions were formulated with guidance from the National Collaborating Centre of Environmental Health (NCCEH). It was distributed electronically to PHIs via social media and BCIT. Results: PHIs use evidence-based information to advise their decisions and actions always (43%) or often (46%) in daily practice. Government agencies, professional organizations, peer-reviewed literature, and colleagues are most often used and deemed as reliable resources. Although very frequently used, the internet was seen as neither reliable nor unreliable. 77% of respondents cited that barriers exist that impede their access to evidence-based information. The most common barriers listed were time constraints, costs, and lack of relevant information. Conclusions: The internet is becoming an increasingly popular means by which knowledge is delivered. However, web-based public health resources need to be more concise, easily accessible, PHI-specific and facilitated by reliable entities to effectively address barriers to practice. Increased communication of evidence, practices, and standards are required between health authorities, government agencies, and PHI professionals to ensure consistent and cohesive protection of public health., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2015., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Peer reviewed, Knowledge translation, Public Health Inspectors, PHIs, Evidence, Public health
Mitigating hand contamination at recycling depots
Background and Purpose: Although the number of recyclers and amount of accepted materials and their contaminants has increased over the decades, the adequate provision of hand washing equipment to mitigate the transfer of infectious agents at recycling depots has not been well studied. Minimal Standard (MS) depots and STAR-Rated (SR) depots are inspected by Encorp Pacific (Canada) auditors, not health inspectors, and claim to provide adequate hand hygiene equipment. This study compared the adequate provision of essential hand washing equipment at MS and SR depots in Metro Vancouver to determine if they met public health standards. Methods: Inspections of presence/absence of essential hand washing equipment (tap with running water, soap in soap dispenser, hand drying equipment and signage) were carried out at 35 depots throughout Metro Vancouver (Vancouver West End to Abbotsford). Depots recorded with all components were assigned a Pass grade; depots with any one missing component or more were assigned a Fail grade. MS/SR and Pass/Fail grade was analyzed using Chi-squared test on NCSS 9 Statistical Software (NCSS). Results: Of the 35 depots surveyed, fails were present in both MS depots and SR depots. Very few depots had signage. Main reasons for Fails included broken hand dryers and lack of soap. All depots with hand wash stations had running water. Pearson’s Chi-square results for observed Pass/Fail and MS/SR depots compared to expected values were unable to reject null hypothesis (P-value 0.911 > 0.05) even when provision of signage was excluded as a criterion (P-value 0.537 > 0.05). Conclusion: There was no association between depot standard rating and provision of essential hand washing equipment. Lack of signage failed 74.3% of depots but excluding signage from the criteria failed 34.3% of depots. Hand washing is important in mitigating risk of infection from hand contamination from household recyclables and those sorted from waste. Inspecting depots and educating operators from a public health viewpoint may increase provision of essential hand washing equipment and increase hand washing compliance in public users., Project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Environmental Health, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 2015., Peer-reviewed article, Published., Peer reviewed, Hand washing, Hygiene, Wash station, Hand contamination, Infection, Signage, Compliance, Metro Vancouver, Recycling

Pages