Proceedings of 1996 Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Calgary, Alberta on 26-29 May 1996. In many medical situations, the need for measuring the pressure applied to a tissue quickly and accurately is crucial. Most conventional devices do not measure the actual pressure applied to the tissue because they do not compensate for the tissue or device compliance characteristics and need to be calibrated for each measurement environment. Neuromuscular damage may occur if too much pressure is applied to a tissue for an extended period of time in applications such as tourniquet systems. Incorrect diagnosis may occur if too little pressure is applied in applications such as mammography units. A compliance-independent pressure transducer has other biomedical applications in surgical retraction devices and prosthetic sockets. To eliminate the compliance problem, a pressure transducer was developed using bulk micromachining technology., Conference paper, Published.
Purpose: Stairways into buildings present a significant environmental barrier for those with mobility impairments. A number of home access solutions that allow users to safely enter and exit the home exist; however, these all have some limitations. The purpose of this work was to develop a novel, inclusive home access solution that integrates a staircase and a lift into one device.
Method: We developed an integrated staircase lift following a structured protocol with stakeholders providing feedback at various stages in the design process, consistent with rehabilitation engineering design methods.
Results: A novel home access device was developed. The integrated staircase-lift has the following features: inclusivity, by a design that provides an option for either use of stairs or a lift; constant availability, with a lift platform always ready for use on either level; and potential aesthetic advantages when integrating the device into an existing home. The potential also exists for emergency descent during a power outage, and self-powered versions.
Conclusions: By engaging stakeholders in a user-centred design process, we were able to gain insight into the limitations of existing home access solutions and get specific feedback on our lift concept. This information strengthened the development of a novel home access device., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Article first published online: July 16, 2015; Issue published: October 26, 2015.
Proceedings of the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America Annual Conference 2011. The Elevation™ wheelchair was recently developed and introduced to the market as an alternative to conventional ultralight rigid wheelchairs normally used by paraplegics and others with disabilities necessitating the daily use of a manual wheelchair. The Elevation wheelchair provides independent user-adjustable seat positioning during normal usage. Elevation allows the user to quickly and easily adjust in real-time the seat height, as well as backrest recline angle, all in a manual ultralight rigid wheelchair form factor. This allows for dynamic seat positioning to suit the tasks and comfort of users throughout their daily activities. The rationale for and user-driven development of the Elevation wheelchair is summarized here., Conference paper, Published.
This paper presents a two stage model of negligence and legal action. In the first stage the defendant decides on the level of due care to take while carrying out an action or activity. In the second stage an accident has occurred and the plaintiff brings suit. Lawyers (agents) invest in actions that are designed to increase the probability of success on behalf of their respective clients. First we present the symmetric casewhere all decisions on investment in legal services occur ex-post (after an accident has occured). We then look as the case where the potential injurer pre-commits to a level of legal services ex-ante (prior to an accident) and analyze the effect that pre-commitment in legal services has on the stage one choice of care. We then present a case study from the field of labour relations where strategic pre-commitment is used to influence the settlement of grievances. The grievance process in labour relations parallel civil litigation and a grievance can be viewed as equivalent to either a tort or a breach of contract; depending on the type of grievance., Essay, Published.
This paper extends the work of Mathewson and Winter (1985) in the field of franchising. Given the hypothesis that a franchise contract ensures quality compliance at a lower cost relative to alternative organizational structures, the existence of dual organizational structures within the same franchise chain is inadequately explained. This paper extends the basic model of Mathewson and Winter into a spatial framework, demonstrating that nonconvexities in monitoring costs will produce dual organizational structures within the same chain., Essay, Published.
This document surveys existing literature on dynamic plan management and describes the development of a prototype Air Force plan management system. The literature survey presents short summaries of a wide range of research papers, as well as a synthesis and analysis of existing approaches. The detailed comparison of existing approaches is used to formulate a specific methodology for the development of software for plan representation, plan forecasting/projection, plan analysis/evaluation and plan monitoring. The proposed methodology involves the development of a precise ontology of plan elements for plan representation. This representation removes ambiguity in the description of plans, facilitates automated analysis of plans, and also permits several different approaches to plan visualization. The implemented prototype software defines an ontology that provides a suitable internal representation of plans, along with basic plan validation capabilities. It also provides a map-based graphical user interface to visualize plans. The use of the software is demonstrated in the context of a combat search and rescue vignette. The findings conclude that the prototype demonstrates the overall utility of the approach, although further development is required to provide more detailed analysis, as well as additional visualization methods., Research report, Published.
With their continuous growth, understanding how plant shapes form is fundamentally linked to understanding how growth rates are controlled across different regions of the plant. Much of a plant's architecture is generated in shoots and roots, where fast growth in tips contrasts with slow growth in supporting stalks. Shapes can be determined by where the boundaries between fast- and slow-growing regions are positioned, determining whether tips elongate, branch, or cease to grow. Across plants, there is a diversity in the cell wall chemistry through which growth operates. However, prototypical morphologies, such as tip growth and branching, suggest there are common dynamic constraints in localizing chemical growth catalysts. We have used Turing-type reaction-diffusion mechanisms to model this spatial localization and the resulting growth trajectories, characterizing the chemistry-growth feedback necessary for maintaining tip growth and for inducing branching. The mechanism defining the boundaries between fast- and slow-growing regions not only affects tip shape, it must be able to form new boundaries when the pattern-forming dynamics break symmetry, for instance in the branching of a tip. In previous work, we used an arbitrary concentration threshold to switch between two dynamic regimes of the growth catalyst in order to define growth boundaries. Here, we present a chemical dynamic basis for this threshold, in which feedback between two pattern-forming mechanisms controls the extent of the regions in which fast growth occurs. This provides a general self-contained mechanism for growth control in plant morphogenesis (not relying on external cues) which can account for both simple tip extension and symmetry-breaking branching phenomena., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Received 7 December 2011, Revised 6 March 2012, Accepted 21 March 2012, Available online 28 March 2012.
Innovative wheelchairs allow individuals to change position easily for comfort and social situations. While these wheelchairs are beneficial in multiple ways, the effects of position changes on blood pressure might exacerbate hypotension and cerebral hypoperfusion, particularly in those with spinal cord injury (SCI) who can have injury to autonomic nerves that regulate cardiovascular control. Conversely, cardiovascular benefits may be obtained with lowered seating. Here we investigate the effect of moderate changes in wheelchair position on orthostatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular reflex control.Nineteen individuals with SCI and ten neurologically-intact controls were tested in supine and seated positions (neutral, lowered, and elevated) in the Elevation™ wheelchair. Participants with SCI were stratified into two groups by the severity of injury to cardiovascular autonomic pathways. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, heart rate and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv) were recorded non-invasively.Supine blood pressure and MCAv were reduced in individuals with lesions to autonomic pathways, and declined further with standard seating compared to those with preserved autonomic control. Movement to the elevated position triggered pronounced blood pressure and MCAv falls in those with autonomic lesions, with minimum values significantly reduced compared to the seated and lowered positions. The cumulative duration spent below supine blood pressure was greatest in this group. Lowered seating bolstered blood pressure in those with lesions to autonomic pathways.Integrity of the autonomic nervous system is an important variable that affects cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress and should be considered when individuals with SCI or autonomic dysfunction are selecting wheelchairs.This work was supported in part by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of British Columbia and the Yukon (V.E.C)., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Received: December 14, 2016 ; Accepted: June 12, 2017 ; Published: June 30, 2017
31st International Seating Symposium, Nashville, TN, February 26-28, 2015. The prevalence of upper limb pain in full-time manual wheelchair users living with SCI is estimated to be anywhere from 30-70%. For those who rely on an ultralight wheelchair for their day-to-day function, the consequences can be significant and will impact more than just their mobility. Since they were published in 2005, the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Preservation of Upper Limb Function Following Spinal Cord Injury (CPG’s) have served as a valuable evidence-based resource for clinicians and seating/wheeled mobility professionals who work with the SCI population. The recommendations related to wheelchair use are based on extensive research that has examined the effects of the wheelchair’s configuration and the user’s propulsion technique on upper limb function. The recommendations focus on three general areas: Ergonomics, Equipment Selection, and Training., Conference paper, Published.
Proceedings from the 2017 ITiCSE Conference on Working Group Reports. As countries adopt computing education for all pupils from primary school upwards, there are challenging indicators: significant proportions of students who choose to study computing at universities fail the introductory courses, and the evidence for links between formal education outcomes and success in CS is limited. Yet, as we know, some students succeed without prior computing experience. Why is this? Some argue for an innate ability, some for motivation, some for the discrepancies between the expectations of instructors and students, and some -- simply -- for how programming is being taught. All agree that becoming proficient in computing is not easy. Our research takes a novel view on the problem and argues that some of that success is influenced by early childhood experiences outside formal education. In this study, we analyzed over 1300 responses to a multi-institutional and multi-national survey that we developed. The survey captures enjoyment of early developmental activities such as childhood toys, games and pastimes between the ages 0 --- 8 as well as later life experiences with computing. We identify unifying features of the computing experiences in later life, and attempt to link these computing experiences to the childhood activities. The analysis indicates that computing proficiency should be seen from multiple viewpoints, including both skill-level and confidence. Our analysis is the first to show, we believe, that particular early childhood experiences are linked to parts of computing proficiency, namely those related to confidence with problem solving using computing technology. These are essential building blocks for more complex use. We recognize issues in the experimental design that may prevent our data showing a link between early activities and more complex computing skills, and suggest adjustments for future studies. Ultimately, we expect that this line of research will feed in to early years and primary education, and thereby improve computing education for all., Peer reviewed, Conference paper, Published.
In this study, an eco-friendly scheme to resolve the silica associated challenges encountered in processing bamboo for biorefineries was evaluated. Bamboo chips were pretreated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at low temperature to completely extract silica and partially extract hemicelluloses for follow up conventional kraft pulping or bioethanol production. Silica and hemicellulose in the alkaline pre-extraction liquor (APEL) were sequentially isolated through carbon dioxide (CO2) and ethanol precipitation. High purity (> 99.8%) amorphous silica particles were recovered by carbonating the effluent at 60oC to a pH of 8.2 with CO2. The CO2 adsorption capacity of the APEL was determined to be 7.15g CO2 per liter. After recovering more than 96% of available silica in the APEL, hemicellulose in the CO2-treated liquor was subsequently separated. This study demonstrated the feasibility of pre-extraction and recovery of silica and hemicellulose to alleviate the silica challenges, thereby allowing to expand bamboo as a feedstock for industrial processes., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Manuscript received October 11, 2016; Accepted December 12, 2016.
The global urban transition increasingly positions cities as important influencers in determining sustainability outcomes. Urban sustainability literature tends to focus on the built environment as a solution space for reducing energy and materials demand; however, equally important is the consumption characteristics of the people who occupy the city. While size of dwelling and motor vehicle ownership are partially influenced by urban form, they are also influenced by cultural and socio-economic characteristics. Dietary choices and purchases of consumable goods are almost entirely driven by the latter. Using international field data that document urban ways of living, I develop lifestyle archetypes coupled with ecological footprint analysis to develop consumption benchmarks in the domains of: food, buildings, consumables, transportation, and water that correspond to various levels of demand on nature’s services. I also explore the dimensions of transformation that would be needed in each of these domains for the per capita consumption patterns of urban dwellers to achieve ecological sustainability. The dimensions of transformation needed commensurate with ecological carrying capacity include: a 73% reduction in household energy use, a 96% reduction in motor vehicle ownership, a 78% reduction in per capita vehicle kilometres travelled, and a 79% reduction in air kilometres travelled., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Received: 20 December 2014 ; Revised: 15 March 2015 ; Accepted: 8 April 2015 ; Published: 21 April 2015.