This paper presents an implementation of an IEC 61850-based real-time co-simulation platform for verification of the performance of a volt-VAR optimization (VVO) engine for smart distribution networks. The proposed VVO engine is able to minimize grid loss, volt-VAR control asset operational costs, and conservation voltage reduction operational costs through its comprehensive objective functions, weighted by fuzzification using advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) data. The optimization engine receives the AMI data stream through measurement aggregators. Moreover, it sends control commands to volt-VAR control components modeled in real-time digital simulator (RTDS) through DNP.3 protocol. To check the performance and the precision of proposed VVO, a fault scenario is imposed upon the system. IEC 61850 GOOSE messages are generated and sent to change the status of specified breakers, while the VVO engine receives system reconfiguration commands via IEC61850 Manufacturing Message Specification (MMS) protocol. The results of the study on 33-node feeder showed adequate performance of proposed VVO in grid operating scenarios., Article, Published.
There appears to be an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with spinal cord injury. Quantitative data concerning the risk of heart disease among individuals with other neurological disorders (NDs) are not available. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of heart disease among individuals with NDs and to compare their risk with a control group., Article, Published. Received: September 19, 2014 ; Accepted: January 05, 2015 ; Published online: February 17, 2015 ; Issue release date: March 2015.
Smart grid-related blogs, newsletters, and conferences have endured numerous debates and discussions around the issue of whether or not the smart grid integrated correctly. While most debates focus on approach, methodology, and the sequence of what to be done, there is insufficient discussion about actually meant by "smart grid integration." This article attempts to present a holistic view of integration and argues for the importance of developing system integration “maps” based on a utility's strategic smart grid road map., Article, Published
This paper aims to present a novel smart grid adaptive energy conservation and optimization engine for smart distribution networks. The optimization engine presented in this paper tries to minimize distribution network loss, improve voltage profile of the system and minimize the operating cost of reactive power injection by switchable shunt Capacitor Banks using Advanced Metering Infrastructure data. Moreover, it performs Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) and minimizes transformer loss. To accurately weight the optimization engine objective function sub-parts, Fuzzification technique is employed in this paper. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is applied as Volt-VAR Optimization (VVO) algorithm. Substantial benefits of the proposed energy conservation and optimization engine include but not limited to: adequate accuracy and speed, comprehensive objective function, capability of using AMI data as inputs, and ability to determine weighting factors according to the cost of each objective sub-part. To precisely test the applicability of proposed engine, 33-node distribution feeder is used as case study. The result analysis shows that the proposed approach could lead distribution grids to achieve higher levels of optimization and efficiency compared with conventional techniques., Article, Published. Received 27 November 2015, Revised 13 April 2016, Accepted 16 April 2016, Available online 26 April 2016.
In recent years, smart grid technologies such as Distribution Management Systems (DMS) and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) have created remarkable opportunities for distribution grids in terms of operation, control and optimization. The advent of AMI has created considerable amount of data that can be used in optimization applications. Other smart grid functionalities could increase the performance of energy conservation and optimization solutions. As such, this paper aims to review the main requirements of two important smart grid adaptive energy conservation and optimization solutions called Volt-VAR Optimization and Conservation Voltage Reduction, in terms of control, measurement, communication and standards for grids., Article, Published. Received 13 May 2016, Revised 13 September 2016, Accepted 22 September 2016, Available online 3 October 2016.
A study was conducted to review the acoustical features and the potential contributions of green roofs to the acoustical environment, to investigate sound transmission theory, and to report on new empirical findings on the transmission loss of green roofs. The results of the study shows that existing sound transmission algorithms do not adequately predict TL of light-weight roof system or green roofs, nor describe the potential effect of moisture content of the substrate. The sound energy is dissipated in the substrate and provides a mass loading and damping effect on to the light-weight roof deck. The study also suggested that green roofs will provide a higher TL than the additional ceiling element and improve TL throughout the full architectural frequency range, specifically desirable in residential and institutional occupancies that are developed below aircraft flight paths., Article, Published.
Cathode ray tube (CRT) glass is considered a hazardous material due to its lead toxicity. In addition, current disposal practices are being phased out due to their adverse environmental impacts. In this project, CRT glass was used as a fine aggregate replacement in concrete. Life-cycle material characterization was conducted by evaluating the durability and strength of the CRT-Concrete. Leaching tests were also conducted to investigate whether the material meets drinking water limits for Pb. Test results show that the plastic state of the CRT-Concrete was affected by the angularity of the glass particles. Moreover, the compressive strength of CRT-Concrete met and exceeded that of the control specimen. However, CRT-Concrete was susceptible to expansive alkali-silica reactions when more than 10% CRT replacement was used. Environmental leaching results show that lead concentrations from CRT-Concrete are below the drinking water limits depending on the CRT volume replacement and if biopolymers are used., Peer reviewed, Peer reviewed article, Received 26 July 2012 ; Accepted 24 March 2013 ; Available online 28 April 2013., Durability, CRT, Heavy metals, Glass recycling, Waste management, Sustainable concrete
Meeting and exceeding requirements for indoor air quality, thermal comfort, and acoustic and visual quality can lead to optimized environments that maximize well-being and performance. However, surveys on numerous buildings have revealed that satisfactory indoor environmental conditions are often not achieved. This suggests the whole industry needs more systematic methods to analyze and design indoor environments., Peer reviewed, Technical feature, Published 2018., Thermal comfort, Thermal environmental quality, ASHRAE Standard 55-2017
Belief revision is concerned with incorporating new information into a pre-existing set of beliefs. When the new information comes from another agent, we must first determine if that agent should be trusted. In this paper, we define trust as a pre-processing step before revision. We emphasize that trust in an agent is often restricted to a particular domain of expertise. We demonstrate that this form of trust can be captured by associating a state partition with each agent, then relativizing all reports to this partition before revising. We position the resulting family of trust-sensitive revision operators within the class of selective revision operators of Ferme and Hansson, and we prove a representation result that characterizes the class of trust-sensitive revision operators in terms of a set of postulates. We also show that trust-sensitive revision is manipulable, in the sense that agents can sometimes have incentive to pass on misleading information., Article, Published.
A fundamental challenge in assessing thermal comfort in health care settings is providing comfortable conditions for the diverse medical services and concurrent occupancy groups. Thermal comfort standards rely on thermal comfort models to predict thermal conditions in spaces that are satisfactory for human occupancy. However, thermal comfort standards and models have not been developed from experimental or field data in health care settings or with health-care-specific concerns in mind; therefore, their validity to assist in environmental health care design has been questioned. This study is motivated by the practical concerns with using thermal comfort models to assist in the design of HVAC systems for health care facilities.
The ASHRAE thermal comfort standard (ASHRAE 2017a) requires a set of environmental and personal factors that depend onthe occupants’ activity levels and clothing insulation. Outlined in this study are the challenges in providing thermal comfort in rooms with patients and medical staff with varying activity levels and clothing insulation. Other challenges explored include looking at activity levels that are near or above the research that was used to develop the comfort models and the lack of insulation values for the clothing required to be worn by some medical personnel. This study also reviews the complexity and diversity of patients, their levels of health, and the care they are receiving relative to the assessment of thermal comfort. A final complexity discussed is applying the steady-state thermal comfort models to the transient nature of occupants in health care facilities.
A literature review of thermal comfort research in health care settings is discussed and summarized. The focus has been on hospitals in general, with some studies on operating and patient rooms. A general conclusion points to patients being more tolerant of indoor conditions than predicted by the thermal comfort models and, generally, patients are more accepting of higher temperatures than the staff. The studies reviewed demonstrate that thermal comfort models can be applied with caution to rooms that serve medical staff and healthy patients—patients that are healthy in terms of thermal sensation and regulation.
This paper exposes increased complexities in addressing thermal comfort in health care settings and concludes that given the critical nature of health care facilities, as well as the levels of occupant diversity and specialization, increased detail and attention to individualities are needed. The paper also reveals a lack of personal and environmental data to enable reliable thermal comfort assessments., Peer reviewed, Conference proceeding, Published., ASHRAE thermal comfort standard, Thermal comfort, HVAC systems