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BCIT Citations Collection

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A quantitative study of cotyledon positioning in conifer development
The number of cotyledons in angiosperm monocots and dicots is tightly constrained. But in the gymnosperm Pinaceae (pine family), which includes many of the conifers, cotyledon number ( nc) can vary widely, commonly from 2 to 12. Conifer cotyledons form in whorled rings on a domed embryo geometry. We measured the diameter of embryos and counted the cotyledons to determine the radial positioning of the whorl and the circumferential spacing between cotyledons. Results were similar between Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis (L.) H.Karst .), and larch ( Larix × leptoeuropaea, synonymous with L. × marschlinsii Coaz), indicating a common mechanism for cotyledon positioning in conifers. Disrupting transport of the growth regulator auxin (with 1- N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)) led to cup-shaped embryos, indicating that whorl (ring) formation is separable from cotyledon patterning within the ring. NPA inhibits cotyledon outgrowth, but not the spacing (distance) between cotyledons. The NPA effect is direct; it does not operate indirectly on embryo size. These results support a hierarchical model for cotyledon positioning in conifers, in which a first stage (not requiring auxin transport) sets the whorl position, constraining the second stage (which requires auxin transport) to form cotyledons within this whorl. Similarly, recent studies in Arabidopsis have shown that different components of complex developmental patterns can have different transport properties; this aspect of patterning may be shared across plants., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Received 27 November 2015. Accepted 8 April 2016.
Quasi real-time ZIP load modeling for Conservation Voltage Reduction of smart distribution networks using disaggregated AMI data
This paper aims to investigate quasi real-time ZIP load models for new Smart Grid-based Volt-VAR Optimization (VVO) techniques. As recent VVO solutions are able to perform in quasi real-time using Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) data, more accurate load modeling could give distribution network operators and/or planners more precise Conservation Voltage Regulation (CVR) and energy saving values at each operating time stage. Furthermore, more accurate load modeling of each quasi real-time stage could improve VVO efficiency. As type, amount and operating time of each residential appliance varies throughout a day, this paper aims to discover ZIP load model of each quasi real-time stage separately through disaggregated data (i.e. decomposing residential load consumption into home appliance consumptions). This paper shows that the energy conservation achieved by CVR operation through presented quasi real-time ZIP load modeling could lead AMI-based VVO solutions to higher level of accuracy and data resolution compared with conventional techniques. Therefore, this paper primarily introduces a new quasi real-time AMI-based VVO engine. Then, it investigates ZIP load model of each quasi real-time stage through statistical data to conserve energy consumption. To check the authenticity and the applicability of presented model in a whole system, 33-node distribution feeder is employed., Published. Received 16 March 2015, Revised 14 May 2015, Accepted 3 June 2015, Available online 2 July 2015.
Raphe-spinal neurons display an age-dependent differential capacity for neurite outgrowth compared to other brainstem-spinal populations
Functional regeneration of brainstem–spinal pathways occurs in the developing chick when the spinal cord is severed prior to embryonic day (E) 13. Functional spinal cord regeneration is not observed in animals injured after E13. This developmental transition from a permissive to a restrictive repair period may be due to the formation of an extrinsic inhibitory environment preventing axonal growth, and/or an intrinsic inability of mature neurons to regenerate. Here, we investigated the capacity of specific populations of brainstem–spinal projection neurons to regrow neurites in vitro from young (E8) versus mature (E17) brainstem explants. A crystal of carbocyanine dye (DiI) was implanted in ovo into the E5 cervical spinal cord to retrogradely label brainstem–spinal projection neurons. Three or 12 days later, discrete regions of the brainstem containing DiI-labeled neurons were dissected to produce explant cultures grown in serum-free media on laminin substrates. The subsequent redistribution of DiI into regenerating processes permitted the study of in vitro neurite outgrowth from identified brainstem–spinal neurons. When explanted on E8, i.e., an age when brainstem–spinal neurons are normally elongating through the spinal cord and are capable of in vivo functional regeneration, robust neurite outgrowth was observed from all brainstem populations, including rubro-, reticulo-, vestibulo-, and raphe–spinal neurons. In contrast, when explanted on E17, robust neurite outgrowth was seen only from raphe-spinal neurons. Neurite outgrowth from raphe-spinal neurons was 5-hydroxy-tryptamine immunoreactive. This study demonstrates that in growth factor-free environments with permissive growth substrates, neurite outgrowth from brainstem–spinal neurons is dependent on both neuronal age and phenotype., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Received 22 February 2000; Accepted 25 May 2000; Available online 25 May 2002.
Real-time adaptive VVO/CVR topology using multi-agent system and IEC 61850-based communication protocol
This paper proposes a new approach for real-time and adaptive Volt/VAr optimization (VVO)/conservation voltage reduction (CVR) system using Intelligent Agents, communicating through IEC 61850 Goose Messaging Protocol. The paper also proposes new real-time adaptive VVO/CVR algorithms tailored for different service level targets and system topologies. The paper argues that each of these variations requires different Intelligent Agent Systems, data structures, and communication requirements. To test the applicability of the VVO/CVR optimization engine, a modified IEEE 34 Node system is used as case study., Article, Published
Real-time co-simulation platform for Smart Grid Volt-VAR Optimization using IEC 61850
This paper presents an implementation of an IEC 61850-based real-time co-simulation platform for verification of the performance of a volt-VAR optimization (VVO) engine for smart distribution networks. The proposed VVO engine is able to minimize grid loss, volt-VAR control asset operational costs, and conservation voltage reduction operational costs through its comprehensive objective functions, weighted by fuzzification using advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) data. The optimization engine receives the AMI data stream through measurement aggregators. Moreover, it sends control commands to volt-VAR control components modeled in real-time digital simulator (RTDS) through DNP.3 protocol. To check the performance and the precision of proposed VVO, a fault scenario is imposed upon the system. IEC 61850 GOOSE messages are generated and sent to change the status of specified breakers, while the VVO engine receives system reconfiguration commands via IEC61850 Manufacturing Message Specification (MMS) protocol. The results of the study on 33-node feeder showed adequate performance of proposed VVO in grid operating scenarios., Article, Published.
Real-time control of a video game with a direct brain-computer interface
Mason and Birch have developed a direct brain–computer interface for intermittent control of devices such as environmental control systems and neuroprotheses. This EEG-based brain switch, named the LF-ASD, has been used in several off-line studies, but little is known about its usability with real-world devices and computer applications. In this study, able-bodied individuals and people with high-level spinal injury used the LF-ASD brain switch to control a video game in real time. Both subject groups demonstrated switch activations varying from 30% to 78% and false-positive rates in the range of 0.5% to 2.2% over three 1-hour test sessions. These levels correspond to switch classification accuracies greater than 94% for all subjects. The results suggest that subjects with spinal cord injuries can operate the brain switch to the same ability as able-bodied subjects in a real-time control environment. These results support the findings of previous studies., Peer-reviewed article, Published.
Relationship between neurological disorders and heart disease
There appears to be an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with spinal cord injury. Quantitative data concerning the risk of heart disease among individuals with other neurological disorders (NDs) are not available. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of heart disease among individuals with NDs and to compare their risk with a control group., Article, Published. Received: September 19, 2014 ; Accepted: January 05, 2015 ; Published online: February 17, 2015 ; Issue release date: March 2015.
Report on key points arising from visioning process on prosthetic and orthotic education done at the British Columbia Institute of Technology
The Prosthetics and Orthotics Department at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) in Vancouver, Canada, has recently completed a visioning process which was done as part of a curriculum review. This report presents and discusses the key points emerging from the process. It is anticipated that the results of the visioning process will provide a basis for a major curriculum revision to the BCIT’s prosthetics and orthotics program. The intent of a curriculum review is to determine whether an educational program’s curriculum is current and relevant with respect to providing students with entry-level skills for the workforce. It involves examining the current scope of practice and competencies of the profession in question and then reflecting back on the curriculum to determine whether these competencies are being taught adequately. Visioning attempts to determine not what entry-level skills graduates require but, instead, what knowledge and skills students need to meet the challenges of the workplace approximately 10 to 15 years into the future., Peer-reviewed article, Published.
A review of the chemistry of the genus Crataegus
Since the 1800s, natural health products that contain hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) have been used in North America for the treatment of heart problems such as hypertension, angina, arrhythmia, and congestive heart failure. Traditionally, Native American tribes used hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) to treat gastrointestinal ailments and heart problems, and consumed the fruit as food. Hawthorn also has a long history of use in Europe and China for food, and in traditional medicine. Investigations of Crataegus spp. typically focus on the identification and quantification of flavonoids and anthocyanins, which have been shown to have pharmacological activity. The main flavonoids found in Crataegus spp. are hyperoside, vitexin, and additional glycosylated derivatives of these compounds. Reviewed herein are the botany, ethnobotany, and traditional use of hawthorn while focusing on the phytochemicals that have been reported in Crataegus species, and the variation in the described chemistry between individual species., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Received 4 July 2011; Revised 9 December 2011; Available online 17 May 2012.
Rho-kinase inhibition enhances axonal plasticity and attenuates cold hyperalgesia after dorsal rhizotomy
Dorsal rhizotomy results in primary deafferentation of the dorsal horn with concomitant sprouting of spared intraspinal monoaminergic axons. Because descending monoaminergic systems are thought to mitigate nociceptive transmission from the periphery and because dorsal rhizotomy can result in neuropathic pain, we sought to determine whether the rhizotomy-induced sprouting response could be further augmented. Because myelin-derived molecules mask endogenous plasticity of CNS axons and because myelin-inhibitory signaling occurs through the Rho-GTPase pathway, we inhibited Rho-pathway signaling after cervical dorsal rhizotomy in rats. An increase in the density of serotonergic- and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive fibers was seen in the dorsal horn 1 week after septuple rhizotomy, and axon density continued to increase for at least 1 month. One week after septuple rhizotomy, administration of intrathecal Y-27632, an antagonist of Rho-kinase (ROCK), increased the density of both fiber types over vehicle-treated controls. To examine behavioral effects of both cervical rhizotomy and ROCK inhibition, we examined responses to evoked pain: mechanical and thermal allodynia and cold hyperalgesia in the forepaw were examined after single, double, and quadruple rhizotomies of dorsal roots of the brachial plexus. The most notable behavioral outcome was the development of cold hyperalgesia in the affected forepaw after rhizotomies of the C7 and C8 dorsal roots. Application of Y-27632 both attenuated cold hyperalgesia and induced monoaminergic plasticity after C7/8 rhizotomy. Thus, inhibition of Rho-pathway signaling both promoted the sprouting of intact supraspinal monoaminergic fibers and alleviated pain after dorsal rhizotomy., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Received July 6, 2004; revised Oct. 3, 2004; accepted Oct. 18, 2004.
The rise of living architecture
"Gives voice to more than fifty extraordinary people who are currently engaged with this transformation. These individuals form a diverse community that cuts across professional disciplines, cultural, linguistic and gergraphical boundaries. They share a belief that they can make a difference through their varied efforts to expand living architectural approaches that result in biophilic, restorative buildings and healthier and more resilient communities." Profiles more than 50 of the hundreds of leaders that have created the base and molded the foundation of living architecture., Book, Published.
A roadmap to integration
Smart grid-related blogs, newsletters, and conferences have endured numerous debates and discussions around the issue of whether or not the smart grid integrated correctly. While most debates focus on approach, methodology, and the sequence of what to be done, there is insufficient discussion about actually meant by "smart grid integration." This article attempts to present a holistic view of integration and argues for the importance of developing system integration “maps” based on a utility's strategic smart grid road map., Article, Published

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