The article presents a study that determines the standard method performance requirements (SMPRs) for determining non-animal-derived proteins in dietary supplements. It offers overview of the purpose, applicability of the methods, and definitions involved in the study. The also outlines the system suitability tests, validation guidance, and potential references of the study., Peer-reviewed article, Published.
A building shall be classified as high performance building if it is energy efficient and durable and at the same time provides comfortable and healthy indoor environment for occupants. To achieve this objective, the hygrothermal performance of alternative building designs should be evaluated based on the simultaneous analysis of these three functional requirements rather than separately. In this article, a Whole-Building Hygrothermal model is used for evaluation of various retrofit design parameters that potentially enhance the overall performance of an existing residential house. The retrofit options considered in this study include changes to the reference house’s ventilation rate and operation, windows, insulation level, and various combinations of these options. Energy efficiency, building envelope and moisture management potential, indoor humidity control, and window condensation potentials are considered to be the four performance indicators in searching for a retrofit option that delivers an optimal performance. The hygrothermal simulation results indicate that changing a design parameter to improve one of the design goals may result in less optimal results in the other one or both goals, or even in some cases result in severe negative consequences., Peer reviewed article, Published. Article first published online: February 27, 2014; Issue published: July 1, 2015 .
The moisture design of exterior walls in a building envelope is an important task that needs to be carried out systematically to generate a sustainable and healthy built environment. Many conventional methods or practice guidelines are available for this purpose, based primarily on local traditions and with limited performance assessment records. In recent years, with the rapid development of global free trade and economy, new wall systems and unconventional materials have been introduced in every part of the world for reasons such as aesthetic appeal, cost effectiveness and so on. However, neither the long-term moisture management performance of these new wall systems nor the uses of unconventional materials have been assessed in a systematic way. The primary reason for this lack of assessment is the absence of a design-oriented methodology to perform the task. This paper presents selected results from a recently completed research project that demonstrate that it is indeed possible to assess the moisture management performance of exterior walls in a systematic way, using a hygrothermal modeling tool together with key inputs from a limited number of laboratory and field investigations. In this project the hygrothermal responses of exterior walls and their components were assessed with a novel moisture response indicator, called the RHT index, which is derived from relative humidity and temperature data over a time period. The results and discussion presented in this paper clearly show the need and usefulness of the application of hygrothermal simulation tool for the optimum moisture design of exterior wall systems in various geographic locations, when sufficient information is available from laboratory and field experiments., Technical papers, Published. Received February 23, 2005; Accepted May 05, 2006; Published online December 01, 2006.
The application of polyurethane spray foam (SPF) insulation in buildings provides a durable and efficient thermal barrier. The industry is also promoting the SPF as an effective air barrier system in addition to its thermal insulation characteristics. In an effort to address these issues, a consortium of SPF manufacturers and contractors, jointly with the National Research Council of Canada’s Institute for Research in Construction conducted an extensive research project to assess the thermal and air leakage characteristics of SPF walls as well as conventional wall assemblies. The objective is to develop analytical and experimental procedures to determine a wall energy rating (WER) that captures both the thermal and airleakage performance of a wall assembly. The experimental part included two streams of testing: (1) To determine the wall air leakage rate at different conditions and (2) their thermal resistance, R-value, at different temperature differences. An analytical procedure was also developed to calculate WER by combining the heat loss due to thermal transmission and that due to air leakage with the aim of arriving at WER. Six conventional full-scale wood frame wall assemblies were built, two with glass fiber batts and of four with medium density SPF. Some walls were constructed without penetrations and others were built with penetrations. The testing regime included: (i) Initial testing of air leakage and thermal resistance; (ii) conditioning in the dynamic wall test facility according to an established routine; and (iii) retesting for air leakage and thermal resistance. This paper presents the results of six walls included in this project. The focus of this paper will be on presenting a brief summary of the project objective, testing protocol, and the theoretical approach to determine the WER number for the six walls., Peer reviewed article, Published. Received 23 July 2008; accepted 30 June 2009; published online 29 October 2009.
This study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of an integrated natural ventilation design for a NetZero energy house in maintaining occupants comfortable solely by passive means. The house was instrumented and monitored during the warmest months of the year. A dynamic thermal model and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model were developed to supplement the measurements and help to understand the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the design. A methodology was developed to validate the models with data and cross-validate them. Adaptive thermal comfort is used as the metric to determine if comfort has been achieved. The study concludes that the house as a whole meets the comfort target. Two technologies were compared through simulations to evaluate their effect on enhancing wind-induced natural ventilation. The technologies did not improve cooling performance in a significant manner. Further work is needed to improve the models through technologies testing in the laboratory and model the uncertainty of the boundary forces to increase confidence in the results., Peer reviewed, Peer reviewed article, Published online: 06 Sep 2016., Adaptive thermal comfort, Natural ventilation, Active house, NetZero energy house
The thermal environment was studied in two operating rooms at the Montreal General Hospital. Thermal comfort of the staff was assessed based on measurements of the environment during surgical operations and on questionnaires given to the staff. Infrared pictures of representative surfaces and people were also taken and, when possible, skin and core temperatures of the patient were also measured. The thermal resistance of clothing and the activity levels for all the people were estimated from published tables and previous research studies. Three thermal zones were studied: zone 1, bounded by the patient, the surgical staff, and the surgical lights; zone 2, the adjacent area; and zone 3, the farthest one. It was found that under the present environmental and personal conditions it is not possible to provide all groups of people with an acceptable thermal environment. In general, surgeons tend to feel from slightly warm to hot (they sweat very often), anesthesia staff and nurses from slightly cool to cold, and the patient from slightly cool to very cold (patients sometimes woke up shivering). In addition to questionnaires, thermal comfort was predicted based on Fanger ' PMV model, which assumes a uniform thermal environment. Based on Fanger's model, the air temperature that could have ensured satisfactory thermal comfort for the surgeon, under the particular conditions studied, was about 66 deg F (19 deg C). However, at that temperature, to remain in good thermal comfort, nurses and anesthetists must be clothed with at least 0.9 clo and the patient covered with at least 1.6 clo. In practice, however, the radiant temperature asymmetry from the surgical lights in zone 1, which ranges between 11 deg F (6 deg C) and 137 (7 deg C) over the operating table and between 18 deg F (1O deg C) and 22F (12 deg C) over the floor (at a level of 1.1 m), causes surgeons' dissatisfaction with the environment at any air temperature. Possible solutions to minimize radiation and its effects on the surgeons are discussed, which would permit ambient temperatures more favorable for the patient and all the staff., Peer reviewed, Conference proceeding, Published: 2001.
The international residential code (IRC) and most building codes in North America provide attic ventilation codes which allow a certain minimum venting area with an unblocked space by the ceiling insulation. Most of these codes have similar minimum venting ratio, minimum space gap between the roof sheathing and ceiling insulation and vent area location for similar climatic conditions. In this paper, the effects of varying the gap between roof sheathing and ceiling insulation (baffle size) and the locations of vent area under both summer and winter conditions are investigated. Three different baffle sizes and three different locations of the attic vent are used to study their effect on the air distribution and temperature profile inside the attic space. A CFD model is developed and validated using existing experimental measurements. Results show that increasing baffle size hugely affects the air distribution when the air flow is majorly driven by wind. The upper side roof vents have been located at three different locations and our findings show when the upper vent is placed the furthest from the ridge the Air Change per Hour (ACH) value in the attic increases but the air circulation is minimal in the top parts of the attic space and structural elements., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Received 29 November 2014, Revised 26 January 2015, Accepted 28 January 2015, Available online 7 February 2015.
We consider the iterated belief change that occurs following an alternating sequence of actions and observations. At each instant, an agent has beliefs about the actions that have occurred as well as beliefs about the resulting state of the world. We represent such problems by a sequence of ranking functions, so an agent assigns a quantitative plausibility value to every action and every state at each point in time. The resulting formalism is able to represent fallible belief, erroneous perception, exogenous actions, and failed actions. We illustrate that our framework is a generalization of several existing approaches to belief change, and it appropriately captures the non-elementary interaction between belief update and belief revision., Peer-reviewed article, Published.
Agents often try to convince others to hold certain beliefs. In fact, many network security attacks can actually be framed in terms of a dishonest that is trying to get an honest agent to believe some particular, untrue claims. While the study of belief change is an established area of research in Artificial Intelligence, there has been comparatively little exploration of the way one agent can explicitly manipulate the beliefs of another. In this paper, we introduce a precise, formal notion of a belief manipulation problem. We also illustrate that the meaning of a message can be parsed into different communicative acts, as defined in discourse analysis theory. Specifically, we suggest that each message can be understood in terms of what it says about the world, what it says about the message history, and what it says about future actions. We demonstrate that this kind of dissection can actually be used to discover the goals of an intruder in a communication session, which is important when determining how an adversary is trying to manipulate the beliefs of an honest agent. This information will then help prevent future attacks. We frame the discussion of belief manipulation primarily in the context of cryptographic protocol analysis., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Received: 17 January 2014; Accepted: 29 September 2014; Published: 10 October 2014.
Providing appropriate prosthetic feet to those with limb loss is a complex and subjective process influenced by professional judgment and payer guidelines. This study used a small load cell (Europa™) at the base of the socket to measure the sagittal moments during walking with three objective categories of prosthetic feet in eleven individuals with transtibial limb loss with MFCL K2, K3 and K4 functional levels. Forefoot stiffness and hysteresis characteristics defined the three foot categories: Stiff, Intermediate, and Compliant. Prosthetic feet were randomly assigned and blinded from participants and investigators. After laboratory testing, participants completed one week community wear tests followed by a modified prosthetics evaluation questionnaire to determine if a specific category of prosthetic feet was preferred. The Compliant category of prosthetic feet was preferred by the participants (P=0.025) over the Stiff and Intermediate prosthetic feet, and the Compliant and Intermediate feet had 15% lower maximum sagittal moments during walking in the laboratory (P=0.0011) compared to the Stiff feet. The activity level of the participants did not change significantly with any of the wear tests in the community, suggesting that each foot was evaluated over a similar number of steps, but did not inherently increase activity. This is the first randomized double blind study in which prosthetic users have expressed a preference for a specific biomechanical characteristic of prosthetic feet: those with lower peak sagittal moments were preferred, and specifically preferred on slopes, stairs, uneven terrain, and during turns and maneuvering during real world use., Peer-reviewed article, Published.
Background: Bamboo is a highly abundant source of biomass which is underutilized despite having a chemical composition and fiber structure similar as wood. The main challenge for the industrial processing of bamboo is the high level of silica, which forms water-insoluble precipitates negetively affecting the process systems. A cost-competitive and eco-friendly scheme for the production of high-purity dissolving grade pulp from bamboo not only requires a process for silica removal, but also needs to fully utilize all of the materials dissolved in the process which includes lignin, and cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars as well as the silica. Many investigations have been carried out to resolve the silica issue, but none of them has led to a commercial process. In this work, alkaline pretreatment of bamboo was conducted to extract silica prior to pulping process. The silica-free substrate was used to produce high-grade dissolving pulp. The dissolved silica, lignin, hemicellulosic sugars, and degraded cellulose in the spent liquors obtained from alkaline pretreatment and pulping process were recovered for providing high-value bio-based chemicals and fuel.
Results: An integrated process which combines dissolving pulp production with the recovery of excellent sustainable biofuel and biochemical feedstocks is presented in this work. Pretreatment at 95 °C with 12% NaOH charge for 150 min extracted all the silica and about 30% of the hemicellulose from bamboo. After kraft pulping, xylanase treatment and cold caustic extraction, pulp with hemicellulose content of about 3.5% was obtained. This pulp, after bleaching, provided a cellulose acetate grade dissolving pulp with α-cellulose content higher than 97% and hemicellulose content less than 2%. The amount of silica and lignin that could be recovered from the process corresponded to 95 and 77.86% of the two components in the original chips, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of the concentrated and detoxified sugar mixture liquor showed that an ethanol recovery of 0.46 g/g sugar was achieved with 93.2% of hydrolyzed sugars being consumed. A mass balance of the overall process showed that 76.59 g of solids was recovered from 100 g (o.d.) of green bamboo.
Conclusions: The present work proposes an integrated biorefinery process that contains alkaline pre-extraction, kraft pulping, enzyme treatment and cold caustic extraction for the production of high-grade dissolving pulp and recovery of silica, lignin, and hemicellulose from bamboo. This process could alleviate the silica-associated challenges and provide feedstocks for bio-based products, thereby allowing the improvement and expansion of bamboo utilization in industrial processes., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Received: 22 November 2016 ; Accepted: 2 February 2017 ; Published: 10 February 2017.
The low-frequency asynchronous switch design (LF-ASD) was introduced as a direct brain-computer interface (BCI) technology for asynchronous control applications. The LF-ASD operates as an asynchronous brain switch (ABS) which is activated only when a user intends control and maintains an inactive state output when the user is not meaning to control the device (i.e., they may be idle, thinking about a problem, or performing some other action). Results from LF-ASD evaluations have shown promise, although the reported error rates are too high for most practical applications. This paper presents the evaluation of four new LF-ASD designs with data collected from individuals with high-level spinal cord injuries and able-bodied subjects. These new designs incorporated electroencephalographic energy normalization and feature space dimensionality reduction. The error characteristics of the new ABS designs were significantly better than the LF-ASD design with true positive rate increases of approximately 33% for false positive rates in the range of 1%-2%. The results demonstrate that the dimensionality of the LF-ASD feature space can be reduced without performance degradation. The results also confirm previous findings that spinal cord-injured subjects can operate ABS designs to the same ability as able-bodied subjects., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Manuscript received June 30, 2003; revised February 6, 2004.