This paper proposes a new approach for real-time and adaptive Volt/VAr optimization (VVO)/conservation voltage reduction (CVR) system using Intelligent Agents, communicating through IEC 61850 Goose Messaging Protocol. The paper also proposes new real-time adaptive VVO/CVR algorithms tailored for different service level targets and system topologies. The paper argues that each of these variations requires different Intelligent Agent Systems, data structures, and communication requirements. To test the applicability of the VVO/CVR optimization engine, a modified IEEE 34 Node system is used as case study., Article, Published
Accepted in IEEE International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering, May 2015. This paper presents a real-time co-simulated platform for novel voltage and reactive power optimization (VVO) of distribution grids through a real-time digital simulator (RTDS) in presence of a reliable communication platform. The proposed VVO engine is able to capture quasi real-time data from local Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and optimizes the distribution network for each quasi real-time stage (every 5 minutes) based on system main characteristics (i.e. active/reactive power of nodes). At each time stage, the VVO engine tries to minimize losses in the distribution network as well as to improve the voltage profile of the system. In order to test robustness, performance and the applicability of proposed Volt-VAR Optimization engine, a 33 node distribution network has been modeled and studied in a real-time Co-simulated environment by real-time simulator (RTDS) and a real communication platform with DNP.3 protocol. The preliminary results prove well-performance of proposed AMI-based VVO engine and show that the engine enables system to achieve higher level of loss/operating cost reduction through a sophisticated optimization engine compare with conventional approaches., Conference paper, Published.
This paper presents an implementation of an IEC 61850-based real-time co-simulation platform for verification of the performance of a volt-VAR optimization (VVO) engine for smart distribution networks. The proposed VVO engine is able to minimize grid loss, volt-VAR control asset operational costs, and conservation voltage reduction operational costs through its comprehensive objective functions, weighted by fuzzification using advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) data. The optimization engine receives the AMI data stream through measurement aggregators. Moreover, it sends control commands to volt-VAR control components modeled in real-time digital simulator (RTDS) through DNP.3 protocol. To check the performance and the precision of proposed VVO, a fault scenario is imposed upon the system. IEC 61850 GOOSE messages are generated and sent to change the status of specified breakers, while the VVO engine receives system reconfiguration commands via IEC61850 Manufacturing Message Specification (MMS) protocol. The results of the study on 33-node feeder showed adequate performance of proposed VVO in grid operating scenarios., Article, Published.
Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE), Aug. 2015, Oshawa, ON, Canada. This paper investigates a real-time communication platform for a Smart Grid adaptive Volt-VAR Optimization (VVO) engine. Novel VVO techniques receive inputs from Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) to dynamically optimize distribution networks. As communication platform design and characteristics affect Smart Grid-based VVO performance in terms of control accuracy and response time, VVO ICT studies is essential for grid planners and/or power utilities. Hence, this paper primarily introduces a real-time co-simulated environment comprised of Smart Grid adaptive VVO engine, RTDS model and system communication platform using DNP3 protocol. This platform is built to test and asses the influence of different components included in Smart Grid monitoring and control system; namely the sensors, measurement units, communication infrastructure on the operation and control of VVO. Moreover, this paper uses a real-time platform to check the robustness of the monitoring and control applications for communication network considerations such as delays and packet loss. Next, this paper investigates how such a platform could look into communication issues while taking system requirements into consideration. A 33-node distribution feeder is employed to check system performance through communication parameters such as throughput and response time., Conference paper, Published.
Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2007 WCECS 2007, October 24-26, 2007, San Francisco, USA. Gene recruitment or co-option is defined as the placement of a gene under a foreign regulatory system. Such re-arrangement of pre-existing regulatory networks can lead to an increase in genomic complexity. This reorganization is recognized as a major driving force in evolution. We simulated the evolution of gene networks by means of the Genetic Algorithms (GA) technique. We used standard GA methods of (point) mutation and multi-point crossover, as well as our own operators for introducing or withdrawing new genes on the network. The starting point for our computer evolutionary experiments was a minimal 4-gene dynamic model representing the real genetic network controlling segmentation in the fruit fly Drosophila. Model output was fit to experimentally observed gene expression patterns in the early fly embryo. We found that the mutation operator, together with the gene introduction procedure, was sufficient for recruiting new genes into pre-existing networks. Reinforcement of the evolutionary search by crossover operators facilitates this recruitment. Gene recruitment causes outgrowth of an evolving network, resulting in structural and functional redundancy. Such redundancies can affect the robustness and evolvability of networks., Conference paper, Published.
There appears to be an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with spinal cord injury. Quantitative data concerning the risk of heart disease among individuals with other neurological disorders (NDs) are not available. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of heart disease among individuals with NDs and to compare their risk with a control group., Article, Published. Received: September 19, 2014 ; Accepted: January 05, 2015 ; Published online: February 17, 2015 ; Issue release date: March 2015.
Prepared for the Atlantic Canada Economic Association Conference, October 19-20, 2012, Halifax Nova Scotia. Both the Canada and United States invest a great deal of resources in the training of their military personal. Many of the skills and experiences accumulated by soldiers are those that are highly valued by civilian employers. Further, these skills are often embodied in academic programs, suggesting soldiers would have a comparative advantage in such programs; however, despite the efforts of government agencies, many soldiers are unable to convert their skills and training into meaningful careers. This paper presents the findings from a pilot program at the BC institute of Technology 2009-2012. The program uses an alternative approach to assessing military training for advanced placement into post-secondary programs. By mapping learning outcomes rather than course equivalences, those from non-traditional education backgrounds are given advanced placement into post-secondary programs. During the pilot period, a cohort of reservists and veterans who have been given advanced placement are tracked and benchmarked against regular students in the same programs over time, measuring academic scores and testing for the development of skills, abilities, and qualities considered important for workplace success., Conference paper, Draft available.
Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Evolutionary Computation Theory and Applications. Classical understandings of biological evolution inspired creation of the entire order of Evolutionary Computation (EC) heuristic optimization techniques. In turn, the development of EC has shown how living organisms use biomolecular implementations of these techniques to solve particular problems in survival and adaptation. An example of such a natural Genetic Algorithm (GA) is the way in which a higher organism's adaptive immune system selects antibodies and competes against its complement, the development of antigen variability by pathogenic organisms. In our approach, we use operators that implement the reproduction and diversification of genetic material in a manner inspired by retroviral reproduction and a genetic-engineering technique known as DNA shuffling. We call this approach Retroviral Genetic Algorithms, or retroGA (Spirov and Holloway, 2010). Here, we extend retroGA to include: (1) the utilization of tags in strings; (2) the capability of the Reproduction-Crossover operator to read these tags and interpret them as instructions; and (3), as a consequence, to use more than one reproductive strategy. We validated the efficacy of the extended retroGA technique with benchmark tests on concatenated trap functions and compared these with Royal Road and Royal Staircase functions., Conference paper, Published.
"Gives voice to more than fifty extraordinary people who are currently engaged with this transformation. These individuals form a diverse community that cuts across professional disciplines, cultural, linguistic and gergraphical boundaries. They share a belief that they can make a difference through their varied efforts to expand living architectural approaches that result in biophilic, restorative buildings and healthier and more resilient communities." Profiles more than 50 of the hundreds of leaders that have created the base and molded the foundation of living architecture., Book, Published.
Smart grid-related blogs, newsletters, and conferences have endured numerous debates and discussions around the issue of whether or not the smart grid integrated correctly. While most debates focus on approach, methodology, and the sequence of what to be done, there is insufficient discussion about actually meant by "smart grid integration." This article attempts to present a holistic view of integration and argues for the importance of developing system integration “maps” based on a utility's strategic smart grid road map., Article, Published
Proceedings of 2015 RESNA Annual Conference. In recent years, more and more studies are using data logger technologies to document driving and physiological characteristics of manual wheelchair users. However, the technologies used offer marked differences in characteristics such as measured outcomes, ease of use, burden, etc. The objective of this study is to examine the extent of research activity that relied on data logger technologies for manual wheelchair users. We undertook a scoping review of the scientific and gray literature. Five databases were searched from January 1979 to November 2014: Medline, Compendex, CINAHL, EMBASE and Google Scholar. This review retained 104 papers. The selected papers document a wide variety of systems and technologies, measuring a whole range of outcomes. Of all technologies combined, 16.8% were accelerometers installed on the user, 14.8% were magnetic odometers or odometers installed on the wheelchair, 10.2% were accelerometers installed on the wheelchair and 8.67% were heart monitors. So, it is not surprising that the most reported outcomes were distance, speed and acceleration of the wheelchair, and heart rate. In the future, it may be necessary to reach a consensus on what outcomes are important to measure and how. Technological improvements and access to less expensive devices will probably make it possible to easily measure many important outcomes at relatively low cost., Conference paper, Published.
Proceedings from the 2017 ACM Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education. Drawing on the long debate about whether computer science (CS) and computational thinking skills are innate or learnable, this working group is based on the following hypothesis: The apparent innate ability of some CS learners who succeed in CS courses despite no prior exposure to computing is a manifestation of early childhood experiences and learning outside formal education., Peer reviewed, Conference paper, Published., K-12 education, Computational thinking