Proceeding of IEEE PESConference, Washington DC, Jan 2012. This paper conducts a topical review of the requirements for end-to-end communication systems as the backbone for command and control within Smart Microgrids. The initial lab and field test results from the evaluation of WiMAX and ZigBee as BCIT Microgrid communication network are presented., Conference paper, Published.
Accepted in 7th International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG 2016), Jun. 2016, Vancouver, BC, Canada. This paper aims to investigate Community Energy Storage (CES) impacts on AMI-based Volt-VAR Optimization (VVO) solutions for advanced distribution networks. CES is one of the technologies employed to improve system stability, reliability and quality. As such, it could have considerable impacts on voltage control, reactive power optimization and energy conservation. Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the main tasks of advanced VVO engines in distribution networks. Moreover, in order to check the performance of the discussed VVO engine in the presence of CES during peak time intervals, 33-node distribution feeder is employed. The results of this paper show significant improvement in the performance of the VVO engine when CES is forced to discharge in peak times. Moreover, the results present how CES could affect Volt-VAR Control Component (VVCC) switching and how it affects the energy conservation efficiency., Conference paper, Published.
Proceedings of IEEE EPEC’08 Conference, Vancouver, Oct 2008. This paper describes a major research initiative by British Columbia Institute of Technology for the construction of an Intelligent Micro Grid on its campus in Burnaby, BC, Canada., Conference paper, Published.
Proceeding of IEEE 8th Conference on PowerElectronics, Jeju Island, South Korea, June 2011.
A strategy is proposed to introduce a limited set of monitoring and control functions into a legacy low voltage distribution substation, and as such integrate it into a larger command and control architecture of a smart Microgrid. The focus of the work shall be on the retrofit strategy of some of the key components for measurement, monitoring, protection and control systems of the substation. Also Volt/VAR optimization of the feeder shall be considered as a part of the design. The article discusses the structure of the substation under study, followed by the actual design of IEC 61850 subsystems for the substation. A simulation model of the pilot project and its results is also included in the paper., Conference paper, Published.
This paper investigates a novel approach for maintenance scheduling of volt-VAR control components (VVCCs) of distribution networks with the aid of new generation of volt-VAR optimization (VVO) solutions called quasi-real-time VVO. The new quasi-real-time VVO technique optimizes distribution network using advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) data of each quasi-real-time stage. As this VVO performs automatically and online, it is necessary for VVCCs to undergo maintenance without disturbing VVO performance. Moreover, the lost benefits that could be gained by online VVO have to be minimized. Hence, this paper proposes an AMI-based VVO consisting of a VVO engine and a maintenance scheduling engine (MSE) that operate in tandem to optimize distribution network and find the optimal maintenance scheduling of different VVCCs. To test the accuracy and the applicability of the proposed solution, a 33-node distribution feeder is employed. Furthermore, five different maintenance scenarios are investigated to check the proposed VVO performance. The results prove that the integration of VVO with MSE could be a reliable approach that can solve maintenance scheduling of VVCCs without interrupting and/or resetting VVO., Article, Published
Exciting yet challenging times lie ahead. The electrical power industry is undergoing rapid change. The rising cost of energy, the mass electrification of everyday life, and climate change are the major drivers that will determine the speed at which such transformations will occur. Regardless of how quickly various utilities embrace smart grid concepts, technologies, and systems, they all agree onthe inevitability of this massive transformation. It is a move that will not only affect their business processes but also their organization and technologies., Final article published
This paper proposes a new approach for real-time and adaptive Volt/VAr optimization (VVO)/conservation voltage reduction (CVR) system using Intelligent Agents, communicating through IEC 61850 Goose Messaging Protocol. The paper also proposes new real-time adaptive VVO/CVR algorithms tailored for different service level targets and system topologies. The paper argues that each of these variations requires different Intelligent Agent Systems, data structures, and communication requirements. To test the applicability of the VVO/CVR optimization engine, a modified IEEE 34 Node system is used as case study., Article, Published
This paper presents an implementation of an IEC 61850-based real-time co-simulation platform for verification of the performance of a volt-VAR optimization (VVO) engine for smart distribution networks. The proposed VVO engine is able to minimize grid loss, volt-VAR control asset operational costs, and conservation voltage reduction operational costs through its comprehensive objective functions, weighted by fuzzification using advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) data. The optimization engine receives the AMI data stream through measurement aggregators. Moreover, it sends control commands to volt-VAR control components modeled in real-time digital simulator (RTDS) through DNP.3 protocol. To check the performance and the precision of proposed VVO, a fault scenario is imposed upon the system. IEC 61850 GOOSE messages are generated and sent to change the status of specified breakers, while the VVO engine receives system reconfiguration commands via IEC61850 Manufacturing Message Specification (MMS) protocol. The results of the study on 33-node feeder showed adequate performance of proposed VVO in grid operating scenarios., Article, Published.
Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE), Aug. 2015, Oshawa, ON, Canada. This paper investigates a real-time communication platform for a Smart Grid adaptive Volt-VAR Optimization (VVO) engine. Novel VVO techniques receive inputs from Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) to dynamically optimize distribution networks. As communication platform design and characteristics affect Smart Grid-based VVO performance in terms of control accuracy and response time, VVO ICT studies is essential for grid planners and/or power utilities. Hence, this paper primarily introduces a real-time co-simulated environment comprised of Smart Grid adaptive VVO engine, RTDS model and system communication platform using DNP3 protocol. This platform is built to test and asses the influence of different components included in Smart Grid monitoring and control system; namely the sensors, measurement units, communication infrastructure on the operation and control of VVO. Moreover, this paper uses a real-time platform to check the robustness of the monitoring and control applications for communication network considerations such as delays and packet loss. Next, this paper investigates how such a platform could look into communication issues while taking system requirements into consideration. A 33-node distribution feeder is employed to check system performance through communication parameters such as throughput and response time., Conference paper, Published.
While there is debate around the real causes of Climate Change, Green House Gas (GHG) emissions as a result of widespread use of fossil-based fuels by major economies around the world has been thought of playing a significant role in perpetuating the negative impacts of the phenomenon known as Climate Change. Regardless of whether GHG emissions is the sole culprit of the unusual, and often devastating changes in the climate patterns around the world, the global understanding has been sought over mitigating further dependence on fossil fuels by the developed countries. What further accentuates that desire, is not only the political and social instability of the regions which have traditionally supplied such fuels, but the fact that such fuel are finite in nature and due to be substantially exhausted in the not too distant future. It is interesting to note that the political and social turmoil associated with traditional sources of fossil fuels has given rise to the justification for many special interest groups in the developed world to call for "drilling closer to home". This view often ignores the fact that fossil fuel in the developed world often lies in "difficult to reach" and technologically challenging areas, which do not lend themselves to relatively risk-free exploration and exploitation. Recent environmental disasters, such as the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is a clear and undisputable indication of the dangers associated with "drilling closer to home". Consequently, to get out of our energy conundrum, it seems that our societies have no choice but to review and question the way our economies generate and utilize energy. Most studies of this nature reveal the wasteful and unsustainable processes and approaches which we have so far used in energy production and use. Conversion of one form of energy into another, transmission of energy from one place to another, distribution of energy through our urban and rural communities, and management of energy resources have all been imperfect, to say the least. Such wasteful approaches to energy use have been the hallmark of the last century, which has now come back to haunt us in terms of devastating consequences associated with Climate Change. It is in that light that Smart Grid has been inadvertently positioned as the silver bullet to address the Climate Change and Energy Independence issues. Smart Grid is expected to enable unprecedented degrees of conservation, efficiencies and utilization of alternative sources of energy, thus substantially reducing this century's dependence on fossil fuels. It is notable that regardless of which development category they belong to, the developed countries, as well as the developing countries, have put together ambitious plans for the development of next generation electric grid, also called Smart Grid, as the main engine for the development of their economies and the well-being of their population. However, the fact remains that Smart Grid is still a collection of concepts and ideas, whose full impact cannot be realized until a rich portfolio of innovative technologies, system architectures, integration solutions and social-economic components are available cost-effectively and in concert to address the energy supply and demand issues which individual countries across the world are grappling with. And as such, energy independence should be perceived by the world community as a global problem longing for global solutions. As will be demonstrated in the rest of this chapter, Information and Communication Technologies are poised to play a critical role in bringing about the full spectrum of functionalities which Smart Grid promises. After all, Smart Grid is all about pervasive monitoring and control, which could not be realized without a comprehensive blanket of communication technologies, encompassing all utility assets, and enabling the intelligence implanted in each node to contribute to the overall system capabilities and functionalities which Smart Grid is expected to provide., book chapter, Book published
The utility sector's transition to renewable energy and the smart grid has already begun. The first step towards smart grid is microgrid, which is a smaller electricity grid with access to all the essential assets of a larger grid. This book provides a glimpse into an actual microgrid project. It supplies a system-level approach to the design of smart Microgrids, covering the entire design process-from roadmap to realization. Detailing lessons learned and pitfalls to avoid in Microgrid technology, the book provides an interdisciplinary approach to design and problem solving for smart microgrids., Book, Published.