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BCIT Citations Collection

Community Energy Storage impacts on smart grid adaptive Volt-VAR Optimization of distribution networks
Accepted in 7th International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG 2016), Jun. 2016, Vancouver, BC, Canada. This paper aims to investigate Community Energy Storage (CES) impacts on AMI-based Volt-VAR Optimization (VVO) solutions for advanced distribution networks. CES is one of the technologies employed to improve system stability, reliability and quality. As such, it could have considerable impacts on voltage control, reactive power optimization and energy conservation. Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the main tasks of advanced VVO engines in distribution networks. Moreover, in order to check the performance of the discussed VVO engine in the presence of CES during peak time intervals, 33-node distribution feeder is employed. The results of this paper show significant improvement in the performance of the VVO engine when CES is forced to discharge in peak times. Moreover, the results present how CES could affect Volt-VAR Control Component (VVCC) switching and how it affects the energy conservation efficiency., Conference paper, Published.
Developing safe fall strategies for lower limb exoskeletons
Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR) QEII Centre, London, UK, July 17-20, 2017. One of the main challenges in the use of a powered lower limb exoskeleton (LLE) is to ensure that balance is maintained throughout the operation of the device. Since no control strategy has yet been implemented that prevents falls in the case of a loss of balance, head or other serious injuries may occur during independent use of LLEs in the event of a fall. These safety concerns limit LLEs in the community to supervised use only. Using the backward fall as a model, we used optimization techniques to develop safe fall control strategies in order to avoid head impact and mitigate the impact velocity of the hips. From available human biomechanics data, we first developed an optimization methodology to study falls of healthy people. The results showed similar kinematic and dynamic characteristics to findings of previous studies on real-life human falls. Second, we extended the optimization methodology to include characteristics of a hypothetical LLE and to generate optimal joint trajectories and optimal torque profiles for the fall duration. The results revealed that by applying the optimal fall strategy, the severity of a simulated fall was minimized compared to when the device fell with locked joints (i.e., how currently used exoskeletons fall): head impact was avoided and hip impact velocity was reduced by more than 50%., Conference paper, Published.
Impact of V2G on real-time adaptive Volt/VAr optimization of distribution networks
Proceeding of IEEE ElectricalPower and Energy Conference (EPEC 2013), Aug. 2013, Halifax, Canada. Deployment of Smartgrid downstream features such as Smart Metering, pervasive control and Distributed Management Systems has brought great opportunities for distribution network planners to optimize the network in more precise methods. Moreover, the advent of Electric Vehicles (EVs) has brought more opportunities for grid optimization. Recent studies stipulate that EVs are able to inject reactive power into the grid by changing their inverter's operating mode. This paper primarily discusses a real-time adaptive Volt/VAr Optimization (VVO) engine, designed to minimize system apparent power losses, optimize voltage profiles, and reduce the operating costs of Switched Capacitor Banks of the grid. The paper goes on to study the impact of EVs on the distribution network VVO, taking into account different EV charging and penetration levels and checks the validity of the proposed algorithm by employing revised IEEE-37 Node Test Feeder in presence of various load types as a case study., Conference paper, Published.
Maintenance scheduling of Volt-VAR control assets in smart distribution networks using advanced metering infrastructure
This paper investigates a novel approach for maintenance scheduling of volt-VAR control components (VVCCs) of distribution networks with the aid of new generation of volt-VAR optimization (VVO) solutions called quasi-real-time VVO. The new quasi-real-time VVO technique optimizes distribution network using advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) data of each quasi-real-time stage. As this VVO performs automatically and online, it is necessary for VVCCs to undergo maintenance without disturbing VVO performance. Moreover, the lost benefits that could be gained by online VVO have to be minimized. Hence, this paper proposes an AMI-based VVO consisting of a VVO engine and a maintenance scheduling engine (MSE) that operate in tandem to optimize distribution network and find the optimal maintenance scheduling of different VVCCs. To test the accuracy and the applicability of the proposed solution, a 33-node distribution feeder is employed. Furthermore, five different maintenance scenarios are investigated to check the proposed VVO performance. The results prove that the integration of VVO with MSE could be a reliable approach that can solve maintenance scheduling of VVCCs without interrupting and/or resetting VVO., Article, Published
Multi-agent control system for real-time adaptive VVO/CVR in Smart Substation
Proceedings of IEEE Electrical Power And Energy Conference, London, Ontario, Oct. 2012. This paper proposes a multi-agent based control system for real-time and adaptive Volt/VAR Optimization (VVO) and Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) in Smart Substations. The design and implementation of the proposed distributed control system using agent technology is discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the architecture, tasks and limits of each Intelligent Agent (IA) as a component of a multi-agent system (MAS) have been explained. A number of control functions are simulated and the results are presented in the paper. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of MAS for improving the efficiency of the system., Conference paper, Published.
Predictive algorithm for Volt/VAR optimization of distribution networks using Neural Networks
Proceedings of IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE2014),May 2014, Toronto, Canada. Smart Grid functions such as Advanced Metering Infrastructure, Pervasive Control and Distribution Management Systems have brought numerous control and optimization opportunities for distribution networks through more accurate and reliable techniques. This paper presents a new predictive approach for Volt/VAr Optimization (VVO) of smart distribution systems using Neural Networks (NN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed predictive algorithm is capable of predicting the load profile of target nodes a day ahead by employing the historical metrology data of Smart Meters, It can further perform a comprehensive VVO in order to minimize distribution network loss/operating costs and run Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) to conserve more energy. To test the merits of the proposed algorithm, British Columbia Institute of Technology north campus distribution grid is used as research case study., Conference paper, Published.
Real-time adaptive VVO/CVR topology using multi-agent system and IEC 61850-based communication protocol
This paper proposes a new approach for real-time and adaptive Volt/VAr optimization (VVO)/conservation voltage reduction (CVR) system using Intelligent Agents, communicating through IEC 61850 Goose Messaging Protocol. The paper also proposes new real-time adaptive VVO/CVR algorithms tailored for different service level targets and system topologies. The paper argues that each of these variations requires different Intelligent Agent Systems, data structures, and communication requirements. To test the applicability of the VVO/CVR optimization engine, a modified IEEE 34 Node system is used as case study., Article, Published
Real-time co-simulated platform for novel Volt-VAR Optimization of smart distribution network using AMI data
Accepted in IEEE International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering, May 2015. This paper presents a real-time co-simulated platform for novel voltage and reactive power optimization (VVO) of distribution grids through a real-time digital simulator (RTDS) in presence of a reliable communication platform. The proposed VVO engine is able to capture quasi real-time data from local Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and optimizes the distribution network for each quasi real-time stage (every 5 minutes) based on system main characteristics (i.e. active/reactive power of nodes). At each time stage, the VVO engine tries to minimize losses in the distribution network as well as to improve the voltage profile of the system. In order to test robustness, performance and the applicability of proposed Volt-VAR Optimization engine, a 33 node distribution network has been modeled and studied in a real-time Co-simulated environment by real-time simulator (RTDS) and a real communication platform with DNP.3 protocol. The preliminary results prove well-performance of proposed AMI-based VVO engine and show that the engine enables system to achieve higher level of loss/operating cost reduction through a sophisticated optimization engine compare with conventional approaches., Conference paper, Published.
Real-time co-simulation platform for Smart Grid Volt-VAR Optimization using IEC 61850
This paper presents an implementation of an IEC 61850-based real-time co-simulation platform for verification of the performance of a volt-VAR optimization (VVO) engine for smart distribution networks. The proposed VVO engine is able to minimize grid loss, volt-VAR control asset operational costs, and conservation voltage reduction operational costs through its comprehensive objective functions, weighted by fuzzification using advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) data. The optimization engine receives the AMI data stream through measurement aggregators. Moreover, it sends control commands to volt-VAR control components modeled in real-time digital simulator (RTDS) through DNP.3 protocol. To check the performance and the precision of proposed VVO, a fault scenario is imposed upon the system. IEC 61850 GOOSE messages are generated and sent to change the status of specified breakers, while the VVO engine receives system reconfiguration commands via IEC61850 Manufacturing Message Specification (MMS) protocol. The results of the study on 33-node feeder showed adequate performance of proposed VVO in grid operating scenarios., Article, Published.
Real-time communication platform for Smart Grid adaptive Volt-VAR Optimization of distribution networks
Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE), Aug. 2015, Oshawa, ON, Canada. This paper investigates a real-time communication platform for a Smart Grid adaptive Volt-VAR Optimization (VVO) engine. Novel VVO techniques receive inputs from Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) to dynamically optimize distribution networks. As communication platform design and characteristics affect Smart Grid-based VVO performance in terms of control accuracy and response time, VVO ICT studies is essential for grid planners and/or power utilities. Hence, this paper primarily introduces a real-time co-simulated environment comprised of Smart Grid adaptive VVO engine, RTDS model and system communication platform using DNP3 protocol. This platform is built to test and asses the influence of different components included in Smart Grid monitoring and control system; namely the sensors, measurement units, communication infrastructure on the operation and control of VVO. Moreover, this paper uses a real-time platform to check the robustness of the monitoring and control applications for communication network considerations such as delays and packet loss. Next, this paper investigates how such a platform could look into communication issues while taking system requirements into consideration. A 33-node distribution feeder is employed to check system performance through communication parameters such as throughput and response time., Conference paper, Published.
Treatment of douglas-fir heartwood thermomechanical pulp with laccases
Douglas-fir heartwood thermomechanical pulp was treated with laccase enzymes at 25 and 50°C with and without added oxygen. The treated pulps were cleached with hudrogen peroxide at increasing alkali charges. Laccase treatments without added oxygen increased bleached brightness by 1.5-2.5 pts ISO, and decreased hydrogen peroxide consumption by 15-20%. The enzyme treatments were not enhanced when supplemented with oxygen. When the effectiveness of four different laccase enzymes was compared for the treatment of Douglas-fir heartwood thermomechanical pulp, there were no significant differences found in the performance among the enzymes. Possible explanations for the observed results are given., Peer-reviewed article, Published.