A number of recent studies have identified and begun to quantify increased susceptibility of the infrastructure to climate change–induced carbonation of reinforced concrete. In this paper, the results of a study are presented which uses an updated empirical model to predict the diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide (CO2) in concrete and thereafter, predict carbonation depths for a number of urban environments in the United States. Data from newer climate forecasts from the 5th Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment report are used to generate predictions for carbonation depths in four U.S. cities of varying geographic and climatic conditions (Los Angeles, Houston, Chicago, New York City). Results confirm that carbonation depths will increase in the future because of climate change. The magnitude of the increase is dependent on the climate-change scenario considered and the geographic location of the city. Whether or not the increases will require building code changes to increase concrete cover or improve concrete quality will be dependent on actual construction practices for the city in question., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Received: January 05, 2015; Accepted: July 30, 2015; Published online: October 28, 2015.
In Part1 of this paper, a carbonation model was developed and experimentally veriﬁed which was able to forecast carbonation depth of a concrete specimen considering varying ambient temperature, humidityand CO2 concentrations. Part 2 of the paper applies the carbonation diffusion/reaction model developed in Part 1 to predict the effects of global climate change on the carbonation of concrete. Climate scenarios were formulated and combined with the model for two major Canadian cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Results show that for undamaged and unstressed concrete, climate change will signiﬁcantly affect carbonation progress. The model showed that for unloaded, non-pozzolanic concrete, ultimate carbonation depths in Toronto and Vancouver could be up to 45% higher. For in-service structures under load, the rates of deterioration are likely to be even faster. This is a cause for concern, and much further effort must be devoted to fully understand these phenomena., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Received 18 October 2011; Revised 21 April 2012; Accepted 24 April 2012; Available online 10 May 2012.
There is nearly unanimous consensus amongst scientists that increasing greenhouse gas emissions, including CO2 generated by human activity, are affecting the Earth’s climate. Increasing atmospheric CO2 emissions will likely increase the rates of carbonation in reinforced concrete structures.In this paper, the serviceable life, from construction through to cracking due to carbonation induced corrosion of concrete infrastructure is considered in various cities throughout the world. It was concluded that global climate change will affect the progression and will result in much higher ultimate carbonation depths in the long term., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Received 23 May 2012; Revised 1 October 2012; Accepted 9 November 2012; Available online 25 December 2012.
Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) at the city or regional scale does not typically include air travel due to a lack of readily available data. However, knowing the “load” placed on nature by various lifestyle choices, including air travel, is essential if we hope to enable society to live sustainably within ecological limits. This paper provides methods for including air travel in urban EFA, in a manner that is accessible to those that are interested in the complexities of urban sustainability. Our goal is to use the case of the Vancouver Metropolitan region to illustrate two methods in such a way that they can be replicated or adapted for use in other cities and regions. We found that the greenhouse gas emissions of air travel by Metro Vancouver residents for 2006 is between 1,191,070 and 1,402,420 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e). The resulting ecological footprint is between 287,030 and 337,980 global hectares (gha), or between 0.136 and 0.160 gha/capita. The dedicated carbon sink required to neutralize the carbon dioxide emissions from Metro Vancouver residents’ air travel alone is equivalent to twice the land area of the region (283,183 hectares)., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Received: July 15, 2013 ; Accepted: September 16, 2013 ; Online Published: September 27, 2013.
Agriculture contributes significantly to anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), with estimates of agriculture's contribution ranging from 10% to 25% of total global GHG emissions per year. The science regarding mitigating (reducing and removing) GHGs through agriculture is conflicting and inconclusive. However, the severity and urgency of climate change and its potential effects on food security demonstrate that we must include mitigation within food system planning frameworks. In British Columbia, Canada, the provincial government has established significant GHG reduction targets for its agencies, and has called on local governments to reduce their carbon footprints through a charter and incentive, as well as through growth management legislation. At the same time, local governments, are giving increased attention to development of local/regional agri-food systems. However, GHG mitigation efforts do not yet seem to factor into local agri-food system discussions. Although frameworks for reporting agriculture GHGs exist, local government measurement of agriculture mitigation is hampered by a lack of agriculture GHG inventories, limited data availability, and the inherent variability in agriculture emissions and removals due to the dynamic nature of farm ecosystems. With the goal of informing local governments and food system planners on the importance of agriculture GHG mitigation, this paper (1) reviews the science of GHGs, (2) describes sources of agriculture GHG emissions and illustrates potential mitigation practices, (3) discusses the variability of agriculture mitigation science, (4) highlights the importance of agriculture GHG inventories, and (5) emphasizes the necessity for local agriculture mitigation strategies., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Submitted 18 April 2011 ; Revised 4 July 2011 and 1 August 2011 ; Accepted 2 September 2011 ; Published online 20 March 2012.
Significant greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions from all sectors of human enterprise are necessary to avoid further effects and reduce the current effects of climate change. Agriculture and the global food system are estimated to contribute to one-third of all anthropogenic GHGs. In British Columbia, Canada, mandated GHG reduction targets and voluntary climate action programs are challenging local governments to include emission reduction targets, policies, and actions within official planning documents. At this early stage of GHG reductions, local government attention does not yet include agriculture but is directed toward the transportation, buildings, and waste management sectors. Given agriculture's contribution to GHG emissions and local government's engagement with GHG mitigation and food system planning, it seems reasonable to anticipate that over time, local governments should and will engage increasingly in reducing GHGs from agriculture. With the goal of advancing agriculture GHG mitigation by local governments, this paper reviews the jurisdictional powers governing agriculture and climate change within British Columbia. It examines how local governments can support mitigation within the sector through their roles in planning, policy, programming, and public engagement, and identifies potential research agenda items., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Submitted 18 April 2011 ; Revised 4 July 2011 and 1 August 2011 ; Accepted 2 September 2011 ; Published online 20 March 2012.
This work looks at the impact of assumptions made regarding efficiency of storage systems used with variable energy resources and how this applies to a solar PV installation. To find the optimal storage system to work with the cyclic solar output, a linear optimization model is implemented using OSeMOSYS. With 100% efficient, free storage, with no capacity restrictions, it is possible to get down to almost 5 GW of required solar installed capacity, but it requires 1.1 TWh of 100% efficient storage. Existing pumped hydro storage facilities have efficiencies between 70 and 80%, which increase these numbers to 7 GW and 1.2 TWh. With a storage model based on the worlds largest pumped hydro facility between 20 and 25 GW of installed solar capacity are required plus between 15 and 30 GWh of storage capacity to meet the 1 GW load. The capital infrastructure required to allow a solar installation to meet that of a baseload plant is therefore around an order of magnitude larger than what is commonly assumed. A shift away from fossil fuels to renewable/variable energy resources will require more infrastructure than indicated by simply considering the capacity factor of the energy source., Peer-reviewed article, Published. Manuscript received September 30, 2014; revised January 18, 2015.